Macedonian Conflict 2001 - not an issue
of human rights but
a struggle for territory and Albanian domination (NLA rebels)
Tetovo and Greater Albania:
Tetovo During World War II, 1941-1944
Carl K. Savich
Tetovo during World War II, 1941-1944: Introduction
The practical implementation of the Greater Albania ideology was achieved
during World War II when Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini established
a German/Italian sponsored Albanian state which incorporated Western
Macedonia, Illirida, Kosovo-Metohija, Kosova, and southern Montenegro.
Hitler and Mussolini set the historical and political precedent for
the creation of Greater Albania which existed from 1941 to 1944. The
Orthodox Slavic populations, the Roma and Jewish populations were to
be exterminated and deported. Albanian was made the official language
in Kosovo, Western Macedonia, and southern Montenegro. The Albanian
Lek was introduced as the official currency. The Albanian national flag,
a double-headed black eagle on a red background, was raised in the occupied
areas. Hitler and Mussolini had achieved a Greater or Ethnic Albania.
The UCK, the so-called Albanian Liberation Army, known also by the acronyms
the NLA/KLA/ANA/KPC/LAPMB, seeks to re-establish and to re-create the
Greater Albania first created by Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini.
The agenda, the goals, and the objectives of the UCK are identical to
those of the ideologues of Greater Albania during World War II who created
a Greater Albania in Western Macedonia, Kosovo-Metohija, and southern
Montenegro. Western Macedonia and the city of Tetovo are integral and
inseparable components or parts of the Greater Albania ideology. Greater
Albania would be incomplete without Western Macedonia. What is being
witnessed in Kosovo and in Macedonia today is a repeat or replay of
what occurred during World War II, when Hitler and Mussolini established
Albanian Nazi's were specially brutal to the Serb Orthodox clergy. Here
an Albanian is murdering an Orthodox priest in Devic in World War 2.
Tetovo during World War II: Italian Occupation, 1941-1943 Adolf Hitler
and Benito Mussolini established Greater Albania in 1941 following the
occupation and dismemberment of Yugoslavia. On April 6, 1941, Germany
and allies Italy, Albania, Hungary, and Bulgaria invaded Yugoslavia
in Operation Punishment. Yugoslavia was subsequently occupied and dismembered.
Hitler and Mussolini then sponsored a Greater Albanian state which included
territory from Western Macedonia, Kosovo-Metohija, and southern Montenegro.
Tetovo became a part of Albania. The borders of Albania were enlarged
to include not only Tetovo or Tetova in Albanian, but all of Western
Macedonia (Illirida), Kosovo-Metohija, and regions of Montenegro. Present-day
Macedonia (FYROM) was divided between Albania and Bulgaria. Tetovo was
in the Italian zone of occupation until September 3,1943, when Italy
surrendered and Germany re-occupied Macedonia. Ethnic Albanians in Macedonia
formed the National Albanian Committee to advance the Greater Albania
movement and agenda. The Balli Kombetar (BK, National Union) was formed
by Midhat Frasheri and Ali Klissura to advance the Greater Albania ideology
or cause. The Slavic Orthodox populations were targeted for deportation
or murder. The Jews and Roma were similarly to be deported or killed.
Hitler and Mussolini had given the ethnic Albanians Greater Albania.
In August, 1941, the Italian occupation forces in Tetovo established
a prison for prisoners of war. The Italian occupation authorities gave
the civil authority and administration to the Albanian population. All
Albanian-inhabited territories, Western Macedonia, Illirida, Kosovo-Metohija,
Kosova, and southern Montenegro, were integrated completely into Albania
proper. Albanian language schools, an Albanian press, an Albanian radio
network were established and an Albanian governmental and political
administration was created. Vulnetara, an Albanian paramilitary formation,
was organized. Albanian police units were established by the Italian
occupation force. Albanian became the official language as Western Macedonia
or Illirida became a part of Albania. The Albanian national flag, the
double-headed black eagle on a red background, was raised in Tetovo
and other cities and towns in Western Macedonia. The Albanian Lek was
introduced as the official currency. Tetovo, Gostivar, Struga, Debar,
and Kichevo were the key municipalities and districts in Western Macedonia
incorporated into Albania, a Greater Albania. Eastern Macedonia was
occupied by Bulgarian military forces.
Macedonia was divided between Albania and Bulgaria. Hitler and Mussolini
sought to delineate the borders between Greater Albania and Greater
Bulgaria. The Albanians and their Italian sponsors wanted to enlarge
the borders of Albania eastward encroaching on Bulgarian occupied territory.
The Bulgarians sought to expand westward. On April 20 and 21, 1941,
the German foreign minister, Joachim Ribbentrop, and the Italian foreign
minister, Count Galeazzo Ciano, met in Vienna to discuss the Bulgarian
occupation zone and the enlargement of the borders of Greater Albania
eastward. Ribbentrop emphasized the importance of the mines in Kosovo-Metohija
and Macedonia that were vital to the strategic interests of Germany.
The German and Italian supreme commands reached an agreement on the
final demarcation line in Macedonia. Hitler approved the agreement on
April 25. The agreement was tentative, however, and was not a final,
complete agreement on demarcation lines. The agreement was abandoned
later as Italy and Bulgaria could not agree on a border between their
two occupation zones in Macedonia and Kosovo-Metohija. Later in 1941,
the two sides were able to reach an understanding on where the border
The Italian occupation forces appointed Albanian Dzaferi Sulejmani the
president of the Tetovo district. The vice-president was Albanian Munir
Tevshana who had come from Albania. Later, Zejnel Starova and Shaib
Kamberi replaced him. Kamberi worked for the Italian intelligence service.
Selim Shaipi was the representative for Tetovo and was the leader of
the Albanian youth movement. Shaipi was also a representative of the
Second League of Prizren and was the president of the Third Balli Kombetar
Committee. Shaipi fled with the German Army when Tetovo was evacuated
in 1944. Husein Derala was made the commander of the gendarmes units
in Tetovo by the Italian occupation forces.
troops in the 21st Waffen Gebirgs Division der SS "Skanderbeg",
The Albanian administration targeted the Orthodox, Slavic populations
for elimination, disenfranchisement, de-recognition, and expulsion.
Feyzi Alizoti called for the extermination and deportation of non-Muslims.
The Greater Albania ideology was anti-Orthodox, anti-Slavic in nature,
and atrocities, deportations, and murders were committed against the
Slavic, Orthodox populations. Josip Kovac, a Slovenian who was placed
in charge of the Tetovo hospital by the Axis forces, described the anti-Orthodox,
anti-Christian, anti-Slavic activity of Alizoti as follows:
"There were exceptionally hard times in the annexed areas of Western
Macedonia and Kosovo-Metohija when Fejzi Alizoti, the High Commissioner,
visited. He gave a speech in Tetovo that demanded the annihilation of
the non-Muslim communities. Publicly and openly he stated that there
will be no peace until the last foreigner---Orthodox Christians---leaves
his territory and settles across the border and only ethnic Albanians
are left behind. Following his visit, the situation deteriorated and
became unbearable for all non-Muslims."
The Italian military intelligence service, OVRA, formed an independent
battalion in occupied Tetovo. The battalion was named iLjuboteni, a
special unit made up of ethnic Albanians in the Tetovo region. This
Italian-created Albanian Axis unit was to uncover, question, and annihilate
any resistance to the occupation. After the surrender of Italy in 1943,
the German forces retained this Albanian formation allowing the unit
to keep their Italian-issued uniforms and weapons. Members of the Balli
Kombetar later joined the Ljuboten battalion. At the end of 1943, the
Ljuboten unit was engaged in the attack on Kichevo in Macedonia.
The Italian occupation of Western Macedonia allowed the Albanian population
to create an ethnic Albanian-ruled region. Albanian police and paramilitary
units were formed as a proxy army by the Italian forces. The civil administration
was entrusted by the Italians to Albanian leaders. Albanian became the
official language;the civil and police administration was taken over
by ethnic Albanians; Albanian schools, newspapers, and radio stations
were established. Tetovo became Tetova, an Albanian Muslim city in the
newly-expanded Albanian state.
A patrol of NLA (National Liberation Army)
rebels in Macedonia, July 2001. NLA, UCPMB, ANA are only different
names of the former KLA. PU amblem denotes Military Police. KLA PU
was directly responsible for many crimes against the Serb, Roma and
Bosniak population in Kosovo
From the 14th century, Tetovo has been an Orthodox Slavic settlement
founded around the Orthodox Church of Sveta Bogorodica (Saint Mother
of God)near the mountain source of the Pena river in the Polog valley.
Sveta Bogorodica was built in the 13th century when Tetovo began to
be regarded as a major Orthodox Church center. Tetovo was the first
center of the Orthodox episcopate. The oldest settlement in Tetovo is
the region around the Sveta Bogorodica Orthodox Church. The modern city
of Tetovo grew from this small medieval Orthodox Slavic settlement of
Htetovo with the building and construction of houses around the Orthodox
Church. The Ottoman Turkish Muslim Empire invaded and occupied present-day
Macedonia beginning in the 14th century. The Muslim Turks began settling
and colonizing Macedonia with Turkish settlers. The Ottoman Turks began
the Turkification and Islamicization of Macedonia. The Ottoman Turks
altered the Orthodox Slavic nature of Tetovo, which in Turkish was renamed
Kalkandele. The Ottoman Turks began settling the level lowlands of Tetovo.
The Colored or Painted Mosque (Aladzha or Sharena Dzamija), also known
as the Pasha Mosque, was built in 1459 by the Ottoman Turks. The earlier
Slavic Orthodox population concentration in Tetovo was on the high ground
and on the foothills of the Shar Planina or Mountain range.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the city began to expand greatly. The
city was divided into the Orthodox Slavic quarter and the Muslim Turkish
quarter. The Orthodox Slavic quarter or section was on the left side,
on the Pena River, made up of the Potok, Dva Bresta, Koltuk, Sveti Nikola,
Dol, Pevchina, and Dolno regions. The Turkish Muslim quarter or section
included the following regions: The Colored Mosque (Sharena Dzamija)
region, Banja, Gorna Charshija, Gamgan, and Saat. After World War II,
the ethnic mosaic of the city changed with the displacement of the Serbian
Orthodox and Turkish Muslim populations. The city then acquired its
present ethnic configuration of Macedonian Orthodox Slavs and Muslim
Albanians. Different city subdivisions emerged. New settlements and
districts were formed such as Przhova Bavcha, Tabakaana, Gazaana, the
Teteks textile plant district, and the Boulevard iBoris Kidrici.
In the town of Leshok, which had been known as Legen Grad, in the Tetovo
municipality, is located the Leshok Monastery which includes the Orthodox
Church of the Holy Virgin built in 1326 and the Sveti Athanasius Orthodox
Church built in 1924. The tomb of the Orthodox scholar Kiril Pejchinovic
lies in the Leshok Monastery. The Church has three layers of frescoes:
The lower layer was built in 1326, the middle layer was built in the
17th century, and the top layer was built in 1879. The Leshok Monastery
symbolizes the Orthodox and Slavic presence in the region. The UCK separatists
deliberately mined and demolished the Monastery in August, 2001, to
eradicate and cleanse the Orthodox Slavic influence. Cultural cleansing
is followed by the ethnic cleansing of the Orthodox Slavic population.
The UCK has ethnically cleansed or driven out much of the non-Albanian
population from the Tetovo district.
Tetovo and its population have undergone an evolution and development
over the centuries. Like a palimpsest, a parchment that has been written
upon over time but that leaves impressions made on earlier layers and
substrata, the city of Tetovo has accumulated layers and strata of the
different populations, religions, and cultures that have existed in
the city. The city presents a palimpsest or mosaic of the differing
populations and cultures that have not been erased but remain to reveal
the development and growth of the city.
In the 15th century, Tetovo began to be regarded as a major city in
the region. The Turkish writer Mehmed Beg in 1436 in the Vakuf noted
that Tetovo had stores and shops and was one of the most prosperous
regions in the Polog valley. In 1470, Mehmed Kebir Chelebija noted the
rapid development of Tetovo. In 1565, under Ottoman Turkish rule and
occupation, Tetovo was refereed to as the iepiscopal religious place
Htetovoi, an Orthodox religious center, the seat of the Orthodox Church
and domicile of the Orthodox religious leader. Haji Kalfa in the 17th
century noted in his writings that Kalkandele, the Turkish name for
Tetovo, that the city was expanding.
In the 19th century, the population of Tetovo began to increase with
settlement from the surrounding villages. The French traveler Ami Bue
noted that the population was approximately 4,000-5,000 persons in the
1900s. Half of the population was made up of Orthodox Slavs. In the
Turkish quarter, there were the upper and lower Turkish charshi and
the Konaci of the wealthy Turkish begs. Many clean streets were noted
by the travelers. A. Griezenbach estimated there were 1,500 houses or
dwellings in the city. By the end of the 19th century, the population
increased as Tetovo became an important trading center. In 1912, the
population declined due to the migration of the Turkish population and
their resettlement to Turkey.
A large garrison of Ottoman Turkish troops was stationed in Tetovo during
the 19th century when the city was a major military/strategic base.
During the latter half of the 19th century, Ottoman Turkey was referred
to as ithe sick man of Europei because it could not maintain its occupation
and colonies in the Balkans and Eastern Europe. Ottoman Turkey suffered
military defeats following the Bosnian Insurrection by the Serbian Orthodox
populations of 1875 and the First Balkan War in 1912.
Herbert Vivian published his account of his travels to Macedonia in
1904 and offered his eyewitness accounts of Kalkandele (Tetovo) under
Turkish rule. Vivian described Tetovo as follows:
"Kalkandele is even more beautiful than most Turkish towns. Every
house has its garden and a rippling rivulet, tall poplars and cypresses
rise up beside the glistening minarets, storksi nests, are poised upon
the chimneys, weather-beaten wooden dwellings of fantastic shape are
relieved by the gay arrangement, always artistic, of Turkish shops,
and the women are among the most gorgeously attired in all Macedonia."
Vivian described the Macedonian system as a isemi-feudal systemi. The
landed estates are governed by chifji or seigneurs. The peasants have
to pay a third of their crop every year in lieu of rent. Macedonians
ilead a medieval lifei. Vivian noted the tension between the Slavic
Orthodox Christians and the Muslim Albanians. Muslims were allowed to
own weapons, but Christians were forbidden to own any arms. Vivian explained:
"This question of arms is one which exercises the Macedonians excessively.
It is a standing grievance with the Christians that they are forbidden
to possess arms, while the Albanians bristle with weapons."
Vivian observed the ethnic and religious polarization and animus between
the Orthodox Slavic Christian population and the Muslim Albanian population.
In Tetovo, he was a guest of the Serbian Orthodox Prota, or archdeacon.
Vivian described the residence as follows:
"His house was like a fortress. A high wall protected his smiling
garden and huge doors were heavily barricaded at sundown. O I asked
the cause of all these precautions, and was told much about the fanaticism
of the population, who might at any time wish to raid a Christian household."
Albanian Muslims sought to incorporate Western Macedonia, Illirida,
into a Greater Albanian state following the 1878 Albanian League of
Prizren in Kosovo-Metohija, which enunciated the Greater Albania ideology.
In 1912, Albanian insurgents seized and occupied Skopje itself, demanding
that the Ottoman Turkish regime grant them a Greater Albania.
In the 18th century, the population of Tetovo began to increase.
Residents from the following surrounding villages and suburbs began
to settle in Tetovo: Brodec, Lisec, Selce, Poroj, Shipkovica, Gajre,
Zhelino, Dobri Dol, Zherovjane, Novake, Gorno Palchiste, Senokos, Kamenane,
and Gradec. Macedonian Orthodox Slavs, Bektashi and Sunni Muslim Albanians,
Sunni Muslim Turks, Orthodox Serbian, and Roma were the major population
groups of the city. By the end of the 19th century, the population of
Tetovo was 19,000. The Slavic Orthodox villages and towns in the Tetovo
municipality or district included Vratnica, Staro Selo, Tearce, Leshok,
Belovishte, Jegunovce, Rogachevo, and Neproshteno.
Tetovo or Htetovo was originally an Orthodox Slavic settlement. With
the Ottoman Turkish conquest, the city was settled by Turks from Anatolia,
Asia Minor, and Bulgaria. For much of its history, Tetovo was divided
between the Orthodox Slavic section and a Muslim Turkish section. The
majority of the Albanian settlement of Tetovo and the surrounding villages
resulted due to the influx of Albanian migration and settlement from
Albania. Albanian settlement is relatively recent and is due to Albanian
migrations from Albania proper into the Polog valley. The Albanian migrations
originated in the Albanian districts of Findi Berdita and Luma in Albania.
Albanian migration and settlement in Tetovo and the surrounding villages
from Albania began only in the 18th and 19th centuries. The massive,
intensive migrations of Albanian settlers from Albania proper began
slowly to alter the ethnic composition of the majority Orthodox Slavic
city. Settlers also came from Kosovo-Metohija. In the late 19th century
and early 20th century, the Slavic Orthodox migrated out of Tetovo for
economic and political reasons. The total Slavic Orthodox migration
out of the city amounted to 5,500 during this period. During World War
I, 2,000 left. After World War I, 5,000 Turks migrated to Turkey. Following
World War II, another large group of Turks migrated out of the city.
These migrations of Turks again changed the ethnic make-up of the city
leaving the Orthodox Slavic and Albanian Muslim populations as the bulk
of the population of the city.
An Albanian Nazi killing a Serb Orthodox priest in
Tetovo: German Occupation, 1943-44
The surrender of Italy on September 3,1943 forced Germany to re-occupy
Tetovo and Western Macedonia. Germany organized the XXI Mountain Corps,
led by General Paul Bader, made up of the 100th Jaeger Division, the
297th Infantry Division and the German 1st Mountain Division, to occupy
the territory abandoned by the Italian forces. The German forces wanted
to recruit and enlist ethnic Albanians into proxy armies that would
assist the German occupation. The Germans retained the Albanian iLjuboteni
battalion initially formed by the Italian occupation forces. The Waffen
SS sought to incorporate the Albanian manpower of the region into Waffen
SS formations, as a German/SS proxy army to maintain the military occupation
of the Orthodox Slavic populations. In 1943, the German occupation authorities
sponsored the formation of the Second League of Prizren, reviving the
1878 League. The Germans sought to use the racist, extremist, anti-democratic,
anti-Orthodox, anti-Slavic agenda of the Greater Albania ideology to
maintain and support their occupation of Kosovo and Western Macedonia.
Bedri Pejani, the president of the central committee of the Second League
of Prizren, a militant and extremist Greater Albania ideologue, even
wrote Himmler personally to request his assistance in establishing a
Greater Albania and volunteering Albanian troops to work jointly with
the Waffen SS and German Wehrmacht. Himmler read the Pejani letter and
agreed to form two ethnic Albanian Waffen SS Divisions. Like Hitler
and Mussolini, Himmler became an active sponsor of the Greater Albania
On April 17, 1944, Reichsfuehrer SS Heinrich Himmler approved the formation
of an Albanian Waffen SS Division, which was then subsequently approved
by Adolf Hitler. The SS Main Office envisioned an Albanian division
of 10,000 troops. The Balli Kombetar, the Albanian Committees, and the
Second League of Prizren submitted the names of 11,398 recruits for
the division. Of these, 9,275 were adjudged to be suitable for drafting
into the Waffen SS. Of this number, 6,491 ethnic Albanians were actually
drafted into the Waffen SS. A reinforced battalion of approximately
200-300 ethnic Albanians, the III/Waffen Gebirgsjaeger Regiment 50,
serving in the Bosnian Muslim 13th Waffen Gebirgs Division der SS iHandzari
or iHandschari were transferred to the newly forming division. To this
Albanian core were added veteran German troops from Austria and Volksdeutsche
officers, NCOS, and enlisted men. The total strength of the Albanian
Waffen SS Division would be 8,500-9,000 men.
The official designation of the division would be 21. Waffen Gebirgs
Division der SS iSkanderbegi (Albanische Nr.1). Himmler planned to form
a second Albanian division, Albanische Nr. 2. The SS Main Office designed
a special arm patch for the division, consisting of a black, double-headed
eagle on a red background, the national flag/symbol for Albania. The
UCK/ KLA/NLA/ANA/ LAMBP would have an identical arm patch in their separatist/terrorist
war for igreater rightsi and ihuman rightsi in the 1998/99 Kosovo conflict
and the iinsurgencyi in Macedonia in 2001.The SS Main Office also designed
a strip with the word iSkanderbegi embroidered across it as well as
a gray skullcap with the Totenkopf (Deathis Head) insignia of the SS
below the Hoheitszeichen (the national symbol of Nazi Germany, consisting
of a silver eagle over a Nazi swastika). Josef Fitzhum, the SS leader
in Albania, commanded the division during the formation stages. In June,
1944, August Schmidhuber, the SS Stardartenfuehrer in the 7th SS Division
iPrinz Eugeni, was transferred to command the division. Alfred Graf
commanded the division in August and subsequently when the division
The 21st SS Skanderbeg Division indiscriminately massacred Serbian Orthodox
civilians in Kosovo-Metohija, forcing 10,000 Kosovo Serbian Orthodox
families to flee Kosovo.
colonists and settlers from northern Albania then took over the lands
and homes of the displaced/cleansed Serbian Orthodox Slavs. The goal
of the Skanderbeg SS division was to create a Serbien frei and Juden
frei and Roma frei Kosova, an ethnically pure and homogenous region
of Greater Albania. In Illirida, or Western Macedonia, the Skanderbeg
SS Division sought to create a Macedonian frei, Orthodox frei, Slavic
frei region. The Albanian SS troops played a key role in the Holocaust,
the Final Solution to the Jewish Problem, which the sponsor of the Greater
Albania ideology, Heinrich Himmler, organized. On May 14, 1944, the
Skanderbeg SS Division raided Kosovo Jewish homes and businesses in
Pristina. The Albanian SS troops acting as a proxy for the German occupation
forces rounded up 281 Kosovo Jews who were subsequently killed at Bergen-Belsen.
The Skanderbeg SS Division targeted Macedonian Orthodox Slavs, Serbian
Orthodox Slavs, Roma, and Jews when the division occupied Tetovo and
Skopje and other towns and cities in Western Macedonia.
The goal and agenda of the ethnic Albanian Skanderbeg Waffen SS Division
was to advance the Greater Albania ideology by deporting and killing
the non-Albanian populations of Western Macedonia.
The Skanderbeg SS Division was formed at a time in the war when Germany
was retreating and withdrawing its forces from the Balkans. The Russian
Red Army was inflicting severe losses on the German military forces.
By November, 1944, the Germans were withdrawing their forces from the
Aegean islands and from Greece. At this time, the Skanderbeg Division
remnants were reorganized into Regimentgruppe 21. SS Gebirgs iSkanderbegi
when it was transferred to Skopje. The Kampfgruppe iSkanderbegi, in
conjunction with the 7th SS Mountain Division iPrinz Eugeni, defended
the Vardar River valley in Macedonia to allow Alexander Loehris Army
Group E to retreat from Greece and the Aegean. The Vardar Valley was
crucial as an escape corridor for the retreating German military forces.
The Skanderbeg SS Division crossed into Macedonia and occupied Tetovo
and Skopje in the early part of September, 1944. The purpose for the
occupation was to garrison Macedonia and safeguard the retreat of German
troops from Greece and the Aegean peninsula.
By 1944, the German forces in the Balkans were in a defensive posture
and were focusing their strategic efforts on a well-ordered retreat
and withdrawal. The Bulgarian forces and the Italian forces had occupied
Macedonia. The Bulgarian army continued to occupy Macedonia and their
presence threatened the German retreat. The Skanderbeg SS Division occupied
the Skopje and Kumanovo regions of Macedonia and the Preshevo and Bujanovac
region of southern Serbia. The German XXI Mountain Corps was based in
Tirana. The Germans also had the 181st Infantry Division at Lake Scutari
and the 297 Infantry Division at Valona, both based in Albania, to prevent
an Allied landing force in the Adriatic. The German XXI Mountain Corps
crossed into Macedonia from Tirana, the capital of Albania and moved
northward past Debar and the Tetovo and Gostivar area. By October 1,
1944, the 21st SS Division Skanderbeg then occupied Skopje, the capital
of Macedonia. The first Regiment of the Skanderbeg Division occupied
Tetovo. A Reconnaissance Battalion of Skanderbeg occupied Djakovica
while a Signals Battalion occupied Prizen in Kosovo-Metohija. The Skanderbeg
SS Division was based in the towns of Tetovo, Skopje, Prizren, Pec,
Djakovica, Kosovska Mitrovica, Pristina, and Novi Pazar.
The SS ideology in forming ivolunteeri Waffen SS Divisions of non-German
nationalities was that the Waffen SS was advancing the cause of national
liberation and national freedom for oppressed/repressed nationalities
and aggrieved ethnic minorities. So the Waffen SS perceived itself as
a military organization under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler which
was made up of national ifreedom fightersi advancing the cause of national
liberation, freedom, and independence. NATO/US/EU would adopt the identical
interventionist/occupation strategy or paradigm in the 1998-1999 Kosovo
conflict and the 2001 Macedonian conflict. The policy was divide and
conquer. The SS exploited minorities and nationality groups in the various
countries they sought to occupy and dismember. These oppressed/repressed
national/ethnic groups and minorities were a natural Fifth Column in
every country targeted for military occupation. Heinrich Himmleris SS
took on the cause of iliberationi and freedom/independence for oppressed/repressed
minorities and nationality groups.
Foremost amongst the groups for SS sponsorship were the ethnic Albanians
in the Balkans and the Palestinians in the Middle East. Indeed, Palestinian
national leader Haj Amin el Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem,
worked closely with Himmler and the SS and supported the Albanian and
Bosnian Muslim aspirations to iindependencei and separatism from Slavic
Orthodox Christian countries. The SS argued that the countries the SS
sought to occupy and dismember were iartificiali nations or states.
But how is an artificial state to be defined and who was to make the
conclusion? Germany itself was an iartificiali state established by
Prussian leader Otto von Bismarck through military occupation and annexation.
Germany consisted of many ethnic groups and many different religions.
Bismarck launched wars against Denmark and Austria-Hungary to dismember
those nations and to annex their territory to a Greater Germany. The
creation of the artificial German state was through military force,
through annexation and occupation, achieved by a Prussian military dictatorship
and not through democratic means. Germany was thus itself an iartificiali
state achieved through war by the Prussian army. National liberation
of oppressed/repressed nationalities and minorities nevertheless remained
the ideological basis for the Waffen SS. Later, this identical paradigm
would be adopted by NATO/US/EU.
Heinrich Himmler was buttressed in his support of the Greater Albania
ideology by Italian archeological research that purported to show that
the Albanian Ghegs were of Aryan/Nordic origin, that they were the herrenmensch,
the master race. Himmler planned to establish two ethnic Albanian Waffen
SS Divisions but the war ended before this could be accomplished. This
is the reason the Skanderbeg SS Division is referred to as the iAlbanische
Nr.1i in the SS records.
By January, 1945, remnants of the Skanderbeg Waffen SS Division would
retreat to Kosovska Mitrovica in Kosovo and then to Brcko in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
The Skanderbeg remnants would reach Austria in May, 1945, when Germany
surrendered following the military and political collapse of regime.
Ethnic Albanian Nazis massacred thousands of Serbs
during the WW2
Scenes of crimes
and German Occupation Forces in Macedonia
The German occupation forces retained the Albanian civil, political,
military, and police control and administration of Western Macedonia.
The Albanian national flag was flown, the official language was Albanian,
and the Albanian Lek remained the official currency in Illirida. The
Germans retained the incorporation of Western Macedonia and Kosovo-Metohija
into a Greater Albania. Rejeb Bey Mitrovica, however, was replaced by
Fikri Dine as the Prime Minister of the Greater Albanian state occupied
by the German Wehrmacht. The Albanian Minister of the Interior was Dzafer
Deva. Mustafa Kruja and Mehdi Bey Frasheri also held high positions
in the Albanian regime. Ernst Kaltenbrunner, who had replaced Reinhard
Heydrich as the leader of the SD, was instrumental in setting up the
Albanian Nazi Party, which replaced the Albanian Fascist Party that
the Italian authorities had set up previously. Much of the civilian
and military administration was exercised by ethnic Albanians during
both the Italian and German occupations.
In Tetovo, there was a total of 1,500 ethnic Albanian Waffen SS troops,
members of the 1st Regiment of the Skanderbeg SS Division. In Gostivar,
there were 1,000 Albanian SS troops, while in Struga there were 100,
and 900 in Debar. In Kichevo, there were 1,500 Albanian SS troops. The
total number of Albanian SS troops in Western Macedonia was 5,000. The
Albanians made up the police force in Western Macedonia: In Tetovo,
there were 16 members of the police force, in Gostivar 10, in Struga
11, in Debar 16, and in Kichevo, 5. There were a total of 5,500 members
of the Balli Kombetar in Macedonia, 2,000 of which were based in Tetovo.
There was a total of 250 Albanian gendarme units, or armed police units,
in Tetovo. An Albanian Battalion for Security made up of 800 members
was based in Tetovo. In addition, there were 80 Albanian finasi troops
and border guards. The total number of Albanian police and paramilitary
units in Tetovo during the German occupation was 4,646. The German Army
only had 450 German troops and three Gestapo agents in Tetovo and a
total of 2,180 troops and 34 Gestapo agents in all of Western Macedonia.
Instead, the German occupation forces created a proxy army and police
staff made up of ethnic Albanians, collaborationists who acted as the
proxies for the German military forces. Like the Italian occupation
forces had done before them, the German military was able to use the
Albanian police and paramilitary forces as a proxy force.
The German Army used Albanian separatists to create a proxy army of
occupation and administration in Tetovo and other cities and towns in
Western Macedonia which were annexed to Albania. By furthering and advancing
the agenda of the Greater Albania ideology, the German occupation forces
ensured that their military occupation of the region would be safeguarded
and assured. The German Army in 1998-2001 would play a similar role
in the Kosovo and Macedonia conflicts. NATO would pursue an identical
policy to that of the Italian/German occupation forces during the 1941-1944
period. The Greater Albania ideology would serve the same purpose again,
expediting the military occupation and establishing a proxy army that
would act on behalf of the NATO occupation forces. The racist and separatist
Greater Albania ideology would be sponsored and furthered by NATO, like
it had been by the German/Italian forces, to expedite the occupation
and military, economic, and political control and exploitation of first
Kosovo-Metohija and then Macedonia.
WILD WEST IN THE BALKANS An ethnic Albanian rebel riding
through the village of Sipkovica,
West Macedonia, Aug 2001 photo FONET
The Greater Albania established by Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini
from 1941 to 1944 set the historical precedent for establishing an ethnically
homogenous Albanian state which would encompass all areas settled by
Albanians. The UCK/KLA/NLA/ANA/KPC/LAMPB goal and agenda is to re-establish
and re-form Hitleris and Mussoliniis Greater Albania. The Albanian nationalist
goal, the UCK goal, is Greater Albania. The terrorist insurgency by
the UCK, first in Kosovo-Metohija, then in Southern Serbia, and then
in Macedonia, ostensibly to obtain igreater rightsi and iequali and
ihuman rightsi is in fact a war of territorial occupation and partition.
The British Helsinki Human Rights Group (BHHRG) has noted that Tetovo
is the focus of the Greater Albania movement which seeks to turn the
Slavic Orthodox city into a center or capital of an ethnically pure
Albanian district or municipality. The BHHRG stated that the population
of Tetovo was 40% Slavic Orthodox but that there was intense pressure
to make the city into an Albanian town, based on the model of Kosovo
where the Serbian Orthodox towns and cities were depopulated of non-Albanians
creating an ethnically pure and ethnically homogenous Kosova, a de facto
iindependenti statelet demanding de jure recognition.
The BHHRG alleged that Arben Xhaferi of the DPA appointed all local
police chiefs in Tetovo. The DPA radicalizes the Albanian population
and pressures the Albanian youth to become nationalist and separatist
according to the British Helsinki Human Rights Group. The Group further
alleges that Albanian youth are being pressured to attend the Albanian-language
University of Tetova with a ideological curriculum based on that followed
in Tirana and Pristina. The University of Tetova is nothing more than
a boot camp for the indoctrination and training for the establishment
of a Greater Albania. Xhaferi seeks to repeat in Tetovo what was done
in Pristina. According to BHHRG, this compelled and forced separatist
and Greater Albania ideological agitation has not met with unanimous
approval within the Albanian population in Tetovo: "Not all local
Albanians are happy with these developments. During the war some sent
their sons to Serbia to prevent their mobilization into the KLA."
The BHHRG further alleged that "the regional weapons market is
run from Tetovo." Menduh Thaci of the DPA is alleged to control
Tetovois shops and the black market, such as in oil. There is widespread
political corruption and collusion with political leaders. The goal
of the Albanian policies, according to the BHHRG, is to force Macedonians
to leave Tetovo by a "subtle ethnic cleansing." The Orthodox
Slavic population is the target of the Greater Albania separatists.
The Kosovo model is being repeated in Tetovo, transforming an Orthodox
Christian Slavic city into an Islamic Albanian city. Pristina is the
blueprint. Kosovo is the model. The ultimate goal or agenda of the UCK
separatists/terrorists is the partition/federalization of Western Macedonia,
Illirida. Autonomy or de facto partition is the short-term goal. Independence
from Macedonia is the long-term goal based on the Kosovo paradigm.
The UCK seeks to re-establish and re-create the Greater Albania created
by Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini from 1941 to 1944. History is being
repeated and replayed in Macedonia.
of Orthodox Christian Heritage in Macedonia 2001
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Kane, Steve. iThe 21st SS Mountain Division.i Siegrunen: The Waffen-SS
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