A Serb Woman Beaten by Albanians
Unprotected Serb women and elderly people are usually targeted
Against Serbs in Kosovo
After June 12, 1999
the Human Rights Watch Report
Orders - War Crimes in Kosovo, October 2001
The adoption of
Security Council Resolution 1244 on June 10, 1999, and the conclusion
of the Military Technical Agreement between NATO and the Governments
of Serbia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia brought an end both
to the NATO bombing and mass expulsions and killings by Serbian and
Yugoslav security forces. In accordance with the terms of the agreement,
the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) entered the province on June 12, and
the Yugoslav Army and Serbian police (and paramilitaries) began a phased
withdrawal from Kosovo, followed by a suspension of NATO air strikes.
By June 20, all Serbian and Yugoslav security forces had withdrawn,
leaving Kosovo under the control of KFOR.
The departure of
Yugoslav and Serbian security forces brought an end to more than a decade
of increasingly bloody and systematic persecution of Kosovar Albanians.
But it did not bring an end to violence or gross violations of human
rights in Kosovo. The province's Serb and Roma minorities-who many ethnic
Albanians collectively regarded as active or complicit in atrocities
by government forces-were immediately targeted for revenge. Thousands
had already departed with the government's forces. Those who remained
were forced to leave the province or concentrated in enclaves after
widespread and systematic arson of Serb and Roma homes, beatings, detentions,
and murders. As of July 2001, an estimated 1,000 Kosovo Serbs and Roma
were missing and unaccounted for.1
Violence soon spread
to include attacks on other minorities, particularly Muslims who spoke
Slavic languages rather than Albanian, Croats, and ethnic Turks. Kosovar
Albanians regarded as collaborators with the Serbian or Yugoslav state
and their families were also attacked. At the same time, political violence
between Kosovar Albanian political parties and factions and rivalries
among former Kosovo Liberation Army officers (both sometimes linked
to economic issues and corruption) led to some high-profile killings,
even after the October 28, 2000, municipal elections.
ATTACKS ON MINORITIES
The KLA and ethnic
Albanian civilians carried out widespread burning and looting of homes
belonging to Serbs, Roma and other minorities, and destroyed many Orthodox
churches and monasteries in the immediate aftermath of KFOR's arrival
in Kosovo. Attackers combined this destruction with killings, harassment
and intimidation designed to force people from their homes and communities,
a pattern which continues today. Members of minority groups in Kosovo
have been detained, beaten, and sometimes tortured, with as many as
1,000 Serbs and Roma reported unaccounted for after abductions since
the end of the conflict. The elderly and infirm who remained in their
homes have frequently borne the brunt of this violence and intimidation,
and many now live as virtual prisoners in their homes. The demographic
consequences have been profound: At least 150,000 members of Kosovo's
minorities fled the province for Serbia and Montenegro, most within
the first six weeks of KFOR's initial deployment.2 In addition to those
non-Albanians who fled the province, there has been substantial internal
displacement inside Kosovo, with the majority of Serbs and other minorities
concentrated into enclaves like Northern Mitrovica or Kosovo Polje.
Although a desire
for revenge and retaliation provides some of the explanation for the
violence, especially in the cases of arson and looting of property,
Human Rights Watch's research suggests that a great deal of the violence
is politically motivated; namely, the removal from Kosovo of non-ethnic
Albanians in order to better justify an independent state. There is
also clear evidence that some KLA units were responsible for violence
against minorities beginning in the summer of 1999, and continuing throughout
2000 and early 2001. Human Rights Watch has no evidence, however, of
a coordinated policy to this end of the political or military leadership
of the former KLA, which has made public statements condemning attacks
of almost all Kosovar Albanians to remain silent about such attacks,
either from fear of speaking out or because of a belief in the collective
guilt of Serbs and Roma, has created a permissive environment for violence
against minorities. Human Rights Watch interviews with Kosovar Albanians
from all walks of life suggest a widespread acceptance of the view that
wartime atrocities now mean that Serbs have forfeited the right to remain
in Kosovo and to retain their property and goods, irrespective of their
involvement in abuses. On the other hand, many of the same respondents
privately expressed their revulsion at the violence perpetrated against
No estimates exist
for the number of minority homes destroyed in the postwar period, but
Human Rights Watch researchers visiting formerly mixed communities throughout
Kosovo during the summer of 1999 observed wide-spread arson and looting
of homes. Seventy-six Orthodox churches, monasteries, or religious sites
have been damaged or destroyed since June 1999 according to the Serbian
Orthodox Church in Kosovo.4 Human Rights Watch researchers visited a
number of the sites.
The intent behind
many of the killings and abductions that have occurred in the province
since June 1999 appears to be the expulsion of Kosovo's Serb and Roma
population rather than a desire for revenge alone. In numerous cases,
direct and systematic efforts were made to force Serbs and Roma to leave
their homes.5 Human Rights Watch documented the harassment of elderly
Serb women in formerly mixed communities in Prizren and Gnjilane municipalities,
for example, and received reports of widespread efforts to remove Serbs
from their homes in Pristina and Lipljan. Roma have been driven from
their homes in Pristina and elsewhere by intimidation and other harassment.
Grenade and rocket
attacks on minority homes are another method of "persuading"
residents to leave. Such attacks against Serbs have been reported in
the municipalities of Lipljan, Vitina, Gnjilane, Obilic, Orahovac, Kosovo
Polje, Pec, Prizren, and Vucitrn. Attacks against Roma have been reported
in Stimlje, Pristina, and Pec municipalities. The homes of the Gorani,
another ethnic group of Slavic Muslims, have been subjected to grenade
attacks in Gora municipaliy and other Muslim Slavs (Bosniaks) have suffered
grenade attacks in Prizren, Pec, and Istok. In Pristina, Serbs and Roma
have received threatening telephone calls and visits by armed men in
civilian clothing and KLA uniforms in which they are flatly told to
leave. The double grenade attack on a marketplace full of Serb civilians
in the town of Kosovo Polje in September 1999, which killed two and
left forty-seven wounded, can be understood in the same context. Even
those who do choose to leave are not immune from violence: in October
1999 a KFOR-escorted convoy of 150 Serbs leaving Kosovo was attacked
in Pec. Vehicles were stoned and their occupants pulled out and beaten
before the vehicles were set on fire. At least fifteen Serbs were wounded
during the attack.
According to a survey
carried out by UNHCR, more than 150,000 of the 210,000 displaced persons
from Kosovo in Serbia and Montenegro fled after June 12.6 Approximately
143,000 of the 210,000 displaced persons from Kosovo in Serbia and Montenegro
are Serbs and more than 25,000 are Roma. Several thousand Roma and Serbs
also entered Macedonia during the same period, and an unknown number
fled to other third countries. In addition, as noted, there has been
substantial displacement of the remaining minority populations within
Kosovo into mono-ethnic enclaves (sometimes consisting of a single apartment
building), generally under KFOR protection. Significant numbers of minority
populations not associated with abuses against Albanians, including
Gorani, Muslim Slavs, and Croats have also been displaced from their
homes by harassment and intimidation, including violent attacks. The
explanation as to why those not implicated in attacks against Albanians
should be targeted is complex: part of the explanation appears to be
that, as speakers of Slavic languages, these minorities are associated
with Yugoslavia in general and with Serbia in particular. In addition,
such minorities may also be perceived to have had a privileged status
in Kosovo, notably during the crackdown against Albanians in the 1990s.
Most of the Serb
populations in the municipalities of Pristina, Pec, Prizren, Urosevac,
and Istok have fled their homes, as have large numbers from the town
of Gnjilane. According to a February 2000 report of the inter-agency
Ad-Hoc Task Force on Minorities, only 700 to 800 Serbs remain in Pristina,
compared to an estimated 20,000 in 1998.7 The Task Force also reported
that only 120 Serbs remain in the town of Prizren and twenty-three in
the town of Urosevac. Those Serbs displaced inside Kosovo are mostly
concentrated in towns and villages which had an historic Serb majority
and which were fairly quickly assigned KFOR protection, including Kosovo
Polje, Babin Most (Babimoc), Plemetina (Plementine), Strpce, Gracanica
(Pristina municipality),Velika Hoca (Orahovac municipality), Dobrotin
and elsewhere in Lipljan municipality (where the Serbs population is
estimated at 9,500), Gnjilane municipality (estimated at 12,500), the
northern part of Kosovska Mitrovica, and the northern municipalities
of Leposavic and Zubin Potok.8 In addition, only a few hundred of the
6,000 Serb refugees from Croatia resettled in Kosovo remain, according
to UNHCR, after two collective centers for such refugees were burned.
As noted above,
there are at least 25,000 Roma displaced from Kosovo in Serbia and Montenegro,
as well as several thousand in camps in Macedonia. There has also been
substantial internal displacement, but the size of the remaining population
is unknown.9 The European Roma Rights Center (ERRC), a Budapest-based
Roma rights organization, reported in July 1999 that none of the Roma
communities it had visited held more than half of their pre-conflict
Roma population. February 2000 estimates from the Ad Hoc Task Force
on Minorities indicated that between 115 and 140 Roma remained in Pristina
town. The November 1999 report from the Task Force estimated that there
were a further 300-600 Roma elsewhere in Pristina municipality at that
time.10 Other areas with significant Roma populations as of early 2000
included Kosovo Polje (between 1,700 and 2,800), Obilic (around 1,200),
Lipljan (around 1,500), Urosevac (4,200), and Prizren (4-5000).11
the Albanian-speaking Ashkali Roma continued after the October 28, 2000,
municipal elections. On November 8, four Ahkali men were murdered execution-style
by unknown assailants outside the village of Dosevac (Dashevc) near
Srbica. The men, living in tents, had just returned to their homes with
the assistance of UNHCR.12 In response to the killings, Head of UNMIK
Bernard Kouchner said "Somewhere in Kosovo, extremists want to
undermine the return of decent people to their homes."13
Members of other
minorities have also been displaced inside Kosovo or have left the province
altogether. In November 1999, 293 ethnic Croats were evacuated from
Kosovo to Zagreb, after they complained of harassment, arson, and not
being permitted to speak Croatian.14 The ethnic Croat population in
Janjevo was placed under heavy KFOR protection and appeared stable.
Attacks against the Croat and Roma communities in the village intensified
in March 2000 however, following the removal of the permanent KFOR guard,
and decreased only after the permanent protection was renewed.
The Muslim Slav
population of Kosovo (sometimes referred to as Bosniaks) have also fled
Pristina in significant numbers, mainly for Bosnia, leaving around 1,600
to 1,800 out of a pre-war population between 3,500 and 4,000.15 The
estimated 23,000 to 25,000 Muslim Slavs in Prizren municipality (who
sometimes refer to themselves as Torbesh) have come under significant
pressure to leave, including grenade attacks and the murder of a Torbesh
family of four in January and of a Muslim Slav man in February, which
led to some departures.16 The Muslim Slav population in Pec appears
relatively secure but members of the community have nevertheless come
under attack: in April, a group of fifteen Albanian men attacked and
beat a seventy-year-old Bosniak woman. (The woman had reportedly been
mistaken for a Serb.) There have also been attacks on the homes of Gorani,
who are distinct from the Muslim Slav/Bosniak community.
groups of armed ethnic Albanians have carried out abductions of Serbs
and Roma throughout Kosovo since early June 1999. In some cases, these
forces have detained, questioned, beaten, and then released those abducted.
However, according to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC),
as of April 2001, approximately more than 500 of those abducted remain
According to Ranko
Djinovic, president of the Association of the Families of the Missing
and Kidnapped in Kosovo and Metohija, 1,230 non-Albanians went missing
in Kosovo between January 1998 and November 2000. Twenty percent of
these people went missing before the NATO intervention, Djinovic said,
5 percent during the air war, and 75 percent after NATO's entry into
Kosovo.18 This number may be too high, however, as some names on the
association's list are reported twice and others who were reported missing
were in detention and have been subsequently released.
In May 2000, the
ICRC published a book listing missing persons from Kosovo registered
up to that point. According to the ICRC, 450 persons went missing between
June 10, 1999, and March 31, 2000. Human Rights Watch reviewed the ICRC
list and, according to the names, at least 309 of these people were
clearly members of minorities (non-Albanian.)19 This matches closely
with figures from the Humanitarian Law Center which, between March 24
and August 10, 1999, registered 318 missing non-Albanians.20 The ICRC
figure of total missing as of April 2001 was 3,525, but no ethnic breakdown
The rape of women
from minorities has also been reported since June 1999. Roma women have
suffered in particular. The European Roma Rights Center has documented
three incidents of rape of Roma women by persons in KLA uniform. The
center interviewed an eyewitness who reported that his sister and wife
had been raped by four uniformed men in Djakovica on June 29, 1999.
They also interviewed the relative of a woman from Kosovska Mitrovica
who had been raped on June 20, 1999 by six men in KLA uniforms.22
On July 26, 1999,
KFOR received a report from a middle-aged Serb woman in Gnjilane that
she had been raped by two Kosovar Albanian men.23 Two Kosovar Albanian
woman witnessed the two men entering the woman's apartment. The OSCE
recorded the rape of a Roma woman in Prizren in October 1999 by several
Albanian men.24 One of the perpetrators, who was subsequently arrested
by KFOR, had allegedly raped another Roma woman in the area. The February
Task Force on Minorities report also documented the rape of a pregnant
Ashkali woman in Urosevac in November 1999, and the rape and attempted
rape of several Roma women that same month in the Djakovica area.25
According to KFOR
statistics, in the approximately five months between KFOR's arrival
on June 12 and early November 1999 there were 379 murders in Kosovo,
with 135 victims of the Serbs. No separate figures were kept for persons
from other minorities, but the figures underscore both the scale of
the lawlessness in post-war Kosovo and the violence between Albanians
and Serb paramilitaries and civilians that continued in Kosovska Kamenica,
Kosovska Mitrovica, and several other areas over the summer. Between
January 30 and May 27, 2000, KFOR reported ninety-five murders in Kosovo.26
Twenty-six of the victims were Serbs, seven were Roma, two were Muslim
Slavs, fifty-two were Albanians, and eight were of unknown ethnicity.
Although, the statistics show a steep decline in the murder rate, it
is important to emphasize that murder (together with other serious crimes
such as aggravated assault, arson and kidnapping) still disproportionately
affect minorities, who now comprise far less than 10 percent of Kosovo's
Some of the worst
violence against minorities has occurred in and around the divided city
of Kosovska Mitrovica, which has also been the scene of extensive internal
displacement. Following the wartime displacement of around 8,000 Albanians
from the (now predominantly Serb) northern side of the Ibar river, more
than 2,000 Serbs have been displaced from the (now predominantly Albanian)
southern side of the river. Between 8,000 and 10,000 Roma have also
been forced from the southern side of the river. Despite the somewhat
belated efforts of KFOR and U.N. police to secure the city, incidents
of harassment and intimidation have reduced the minority populations
on both sides of the Ibar.
The city has been
effectively partitioned, with a heavy deployment of KFOR peacekeepers
designed to keep communities apart and to protect isolated pockets of
Serbs and Roma in the southern part of the city and Albanians, Muslim
Slavs, and Turks in the northern part (most of them concentrated in
the so-called "Bosniak" quarter). Some of the worst violence
in Mitrovica followed a February 2, 2000, rocket attack on a UNHCR bus
under KFOR escort traveling from a Serb enclave, the village of Banja,
to Kosovska Mitrovica. The attack left an elderly Serb man and woman
dead and three others wounded, and sparked a wave of tit-for-tat violence
in northern Mitrovica that left eight non-Serbs dead and forced more
than 1,700 Albanians, Muslim Slavs, and Turks to flee to the southern
part of the city. UNHCR bus lines connecting minority enclaves were
suspended for two months after the attack.
After the events
of the spring of 2000 minorities remained a target, with much of the
violence designed to force them to leave Kosovo. The Ad Hoc Task Force
on Minorities report from May stated that "the last remaining Serb
in Klobukar [a village in Novo Brdo municipality] was stabbed in the
chest on 14 February, and her body was discovered the next day in her
burning house."28 On February 26, Josip Vasic, a prominent doctor
and member of the Serb National Council was shot dead on the street
in Gnjilane.29 A twenty-nine-year-old Serb man was shot dead on March
11 while working in his fields in the village of Donja Brnjica (Bernica
e Poshteme), near Pristina. On March 27, a Roma man was found strangled
in Istok. On March 28, an elderly Serb women was beaten in her home
in Prizren. The woman subsequently died of her wounds. On April 3, 2000,
Metodije Halauska, an eighty-six-year-old ethnic Czech was kidnapped
from his home in Pristina, beaten and shot in the back of the head.
On April 8, the body of an unidentified elderly woman was found in the
burned remains of a Serb house in Pec.30 Two Roma teenage boys aged
seventeen and eighteen and a forty-eight-year-old Roma woman were also
found shot dead in Pec on the same day. On April 9, a Serb man was shot
dead in a restaurant in Gnjilane. Three other Serbs were also killed
during that same week.
The weeks surrounding
the first anniversary of NATO's entry into Kosovo were particularly
bloody with a series of grenade and landmine attacks and "drive-by"
shootings targeting Serbs that left eleven dead and more than a dozen
wounded. On May 22, a seventy-year-old Serb farmer was shot dead in
Gojbulja (Gojbuja) village (Vucitrn municipality).31 Two days later
a fifty-one-year-old Serb man was shot dead in the town of Vitina. On
May 28, two men and a four-year-old boy were killed and two men were
wounded in a "drive-by" shooting in Cernica (Gnjilane municipality).32
A May 31 "drive-by" shooting in Babin Most village left one
Serb man dead and another wounded. On June 1, a group of Serbs returning
from a funeral were fired upon by ethnic Albanians in the village of
Klokot (Gnjilane municipality), killing one woman and wounding three
men.33 On June 2, two Serb men driving on a road connecting two Serb
villages were killed after their car hit a landmine. A woman and two
children in the car were wounded. The road had previously been cleared
of mines, the mine.34 A grenade attack in the Serb enclave of Gracanica
on June 6 left a further five wounded.35 On June 15, two Serb men were
killed and another man was wounded after their vehicle drove over a
landmine near the village of Lepina (Lipljan municipality) in what a
KFOR spokesperson described as a "deliberate, carefully planned,
Service with an
international organization has not been sufficient to provide minorities
with immunity from violence. In October 1999, a U.N. official from Bulgaria
was shot dead on Pristina's main street, after reportedly being mistaken
for a Serb. The same month, a grenade was thrown into the Pristina apartment
of a Serb interpreter working for the U.N., slightly wounding her. She
had earlier been forced to move apartments because of harassment. On
May 15, the body of twenty-five-year-old Petar Topoljski, a Serb UNMIK
translator, was found in the village of Rimaniste, near Pristina.37
Topoljski had not appeared for work for the previous week, after his
name, photograph, and address were published in the Kosovo daily newspaper
Dita, together with allegations that he was a Serb paramilitary who
had participated in the mass expulsions of Albanians from the province.
(The newspaper was temporarily shut down by UNMIK for eight days after
the paper's editor refused to apologize for publishing the story, print
a retraction, or agree to refrain from making similar accusations in
the future. The paper also reprinted the article when the ban was lifted.)
The Kosovo Liberation Army also abducted, killed, and drove Kosovar
Serbs and Roma from Kosovo, as well as ethnic Albanians accused of being
"collaborators," in 1998 and early 1999. See section on "Abuses
by the KLA" in the Background chapter, as well as Human Rights
Watch, "Humanitarian Law Violations in Kosovo," October 1998,
2 Between February and April 2000, UNHCR registered 180,000 displaced
persons from Kosovo in Serbia and 30,000 in Montenegro respectively.
More than 150,000 of the 180,000 displaced persons in Serbia reported
that they had fled after June 12, 1999. (See UNHCR Refugees Daily, May
3 The Kosovo Liberation Army was officially demilitarized in September
1999, and many of its members subsumed into the Kosovo Protection Corps,
a civil defense organization headed by former KLA Commander Agim Ceku.
4 "Crucified Kosovo-Destroyed and Desecrated Serbian Orthodox Churches
in Kosovo and Metohija (1999-2000)," expanded electronic edition.
See: www.kosovo.net/crucified/default.htm (March 21, 2001).
5 By June 2000, international officials were finally willing to concede
that attacks against minorities in Kosovo were systematic in nature.
In his June 6 report to the Security Council on UNMIK (S/2000/538),
U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan wrote that attacks on minorities,
"appear to be orchestrated." U.S. State Department special
envoy James O'Brien stated on June 8 that the violence "seems to
be systematic." "Anti-Serb Violence Condemned," AP, June
8, 2000. On May 31, NATO Secretary-General Lord Robertson termed the
violence as "ethnic cleansing," noting that "We did not
stop ethnic cleansing one year to see ethnic cleansing of another kind
take place today." "Kosovo: NATO's Patience Wearing Thin,"
NATO press release, May 31, 2000.
6 UNHCR Refugees Daily, May 23, 2000.
7 UNHCR-OSCE Ad Hoc Task Force on Minorities "Overview of the Situation
of Minorities" (February 11, 2000). UNHCR is the source of the
1998 Pristina population estimate.
8 Information compiled from "Overview of the Situation of Minorities"
(February 11, 2000) and from Human Rights Watch field research (June-November
9 The 1991 Yugoslav census indicated a Roma population of between 30,000
and 40,000 in Kosovo but the real figure is likely to be higher due
to non-participation in censuses and continued migration.
10 UNHCR-OSCE Ad Hoc Task Force on Minorities, "Overview of the
Situation of Minorities," November 3, 1999.
11 UNHCR-OSCE Ad Hoc Task Force on Minorities "Assessment of the
Situation of Ethnic Minorities in Kosovo," February 11, 2000.
12 The victims were Hajzer Ahmeti, Ibush Ahmeti, Isret Bajrami, and
13 "Ashkali Murder to Have a `Chilling' Effect on Return of Refugees,
Says UNHCR," KosovaLive, November 10, 2000.
14 "Ethnic Croats from Kosovo evacuated to Croatia," Associated
Press, November 1, 1999. Quoted in UNHCR Refugee Daily, 11/1/99.
15 UNHCR-OSCE Ad Hoc Task Force on Minorities "Assessment of the
Situation of Ethnic Minorities in Kosovo," February 11, 2000.
17 ICRC statement, "Person Unaccouted for in Connection with the
Kosovo Crisis," _April 10, 2001.
18 Press conference of the Association of the Families of the Missing
and Kidnapped in Kosovo and Metohija, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, November
19 "Persons Missing in Relation to the Events in Kosovo From January
1998," ICRC, May 2000. The book of the missing can be searched
by name on the ICRC website at: www.familylinks.icrc.org/kosovo.
20 Humanitarian Law Center report, Kosovo-Disappearances of Non-Albanians
24th March-10th August 1999. Available at www.greekhelsinki.gr/english/reports/hlc-24-3-10-8-99.html,
(March 22, 2001).
21 ICRC Statement, April 10, 2001.
22 European Roma Rights Center, "Press Statement: The Current Situation
of Roma in Kosovo," July 9, 1999.
23 OSCE/ODIHR, Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen, As Told-Part II, pp.?.
25 UNHCR-OSCE Ad Hoc Task Force on Minorities "Assessment of the
Situation of Ethnic Minorities in Kosovo," February 11, 2000.
26 UNHCR-OSCE Ad Hoc Task Force on Minorities, "Update on the Situation
of Ethnic Minorities in Kosovo (Period Covering February through May
2000)," May 31, 2000.
27 Statistics for aggravated assault over the same period include forty-nine
cases of charges against Serbs, two against Roma, two against Muslim
Slavs, ninety against Albanians and nine against persons of unknown
ethnicity. "Update on the Situation of Ethnic Minorities in Kosovo
(Period Covering February through May 2000)."
28 UNHCR-OSCE Ad Hoc Task Force on Minorities, "Update on the Situation
of Ethnic Minorities in Kosovo (Period Covering February through May
2000)," May 31, 2000.
29 "U.N. Kosovo Head Condemns Killing of Serb Doctor as `Sabotage,'"
Reuters, March 2, 2000.
30 "Upsurge in Violence in Kosovo in past week: UN," Agence
France Presse, April 10, 2000.
31 "Kosovo Farmer Gunned Down in Northern Kosovo," Associated
Press, May 22, 2000.
32 KFOR Press Update, May 29, 2000.
33 "Albanians Attack Serbs in Kosovo," Reuters, June 1, 2000.
34 "Landmine Kills Two Serbs in Latest Kosovo Attack," Reuters,
June 2, 2000.
35 "Five Serbs Injured in Kosovo Grenade Attack-KFOR," Reuters,
June 6, 2000.
36 KFOR Press Update, June 16, 2000; For additional information see:
"Two Serbs killed, one injured as car hits landmine in Kosovo,"
Agence France Presse, June 15, 2000.
37 "Serb Working for UN Killed in Kosovo," Reuters, May 17,