• HISTORIC MONUMENTS OF KOSOVO AND METOHIJA, AUTONOMOUS PROVINCE OF REPUBLIC OF SERBIA (DISTRICTS: PEC, PRIZREN AND PRISTINA)   
  • JUSTIFICATION OF "OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE": 
  •   - Criteria met: 24 (a) (ii), (iv), (vi) 
  • (b) (i), (ii)   
  • - Assurance of authenticity or integrity:    
  • The immobile cultural property of the Metohija Region is protected under the Law on 
  • Cultural Property adopted by the Assembly of the Republic of Serbia (Official Gazette of  
  • the Republic of Serbia No. 71 from 1994), and is categorised according to the Decision on  
  • the Identification of Immobile Cultural Property of Outstanding Value (Official Gazette of  
  • SR Serbia Nos. 25 and 16 from 1990).   
  • I DISTRICT OF PEC   
  • GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:  
  • * Municipalities of Decani, Pec, Klina, Istok, Srbica 
  • * Kosovo and Metohija 
  • * Southern Serbia   
  • DESCRIPTION   
  • The central part of the Metohija valley which comprises the upper section of the Beli Drim river drainage area is a fertile plain inhabited even in prehistoric times and Antiquity, which came to prominence when at the end of the 13th century the seat of the autonomous Serbian Church was transferred to Pec with the strengthening of the Serbian medieval state and its expansion towards the southern parts of the Balkan peninsula. The Pec Patriarchate and Decani have been in existence since the 14th century as two major ecclesiastical seats in Metohija and their building was accompanied by the erection of a large number of other sacral monuments of outstanding value (Budisavci, Djurakovac, Crkolez, the Belodrim monuments), mainly as the estates of the mentioned monasteries which governed the monastic life of this region, or as foundations of the Serbian nobility. Turkish rule in the Balkans did not affect construction activity and painting which continued unabated led by Pec and Decani as constantly active and powerful strongholds of Orthodoxy. A large number of smaller churches and monasteries (the Belodrim monuments, Gorioc) were erected or restored in parallel. The oldest examples of folk architecture in Serbia - traditionally linked to the main centres of church life in Metohija - have been preserved precisely in this area and date back to the 18th century (Gorazdevac, Locane). In addition to numerous remains of churches with graveyards, the extensive medieval architectural activity in this region is illustrated by numerous fortifications and hermitages located mostly in inaccessible caves of the Rugova gorge while the past two centuries are characterised by a widespread and very specific type of secular architecture adapted to the geographical features of Metohija and the way of life of most of its inhabitants (residential towers).  
  • COMPARISON WITH OTHER SIMILAR PROPERTIES: 
  • In historic-artistic and religious terms, the region of Metohija is eminently under the influence of two exceptional ecclesiastical centres, the Monasteries of the Pec Patriarchate and Decani. As architectural and painting masterpieces (in 1994 Decani was nominated for inscription on the World Heritage List) they hallmarked not only the creative endeavour of their epoch but also of centuries to come, their activity in the period under Ottoman rule making them renowned centres of spiritual life around which not only the Serbian people but also members of other confessions rallied. 
  • 1. VIRGIN HVOSTANSKA MONASTERY - The Monastery of the Virgin Hvostanska is located at the foot of Mokra Mountain, near the village of Vrelo, 20 km north of Pec. The three-nave basilica with narthex built by mid-6th century belongs the early Byzantine period. In the third decade of the 13th century, the church dedicated to the Assumption was built on its foundations where the bishopric seat was located. This was an one-nave edifice with the dome and altar apse, semi-circular inside and rectangular outside. Two small churches, parecclesions, were on the northern and southern sides of narthex and were, from the outside, masked by the flatly built surface. Two towers were erected above them which surpassed the dome of the shrine. The church belongs to the Raska architecture. In mid-14th century, it was enlarged by an one-nave building with the semi-circular apse on the eastern side and semi-oval dome. The Bishophry of Hvosno became the diocese of a metropolitan in 1381. The second part of the 16th century was the period of flourishing artistic activities in the monastery and the last Metropolit Viktor was mentioned in 1635. The monastery was deserted and began to decay most probably at the time of Velika Seoba (Big Migration) in 1690. The ruins of the monastery complex were explored in 1930 and from 1966 to 1970 when conservation works were carried out on the remains of church, dormitories of the monks and a part of the fortification. 
  • 2. THE PATRIARCHATE OF PEC, MONASTERY - The Monastery of the Patriarchate of Pec is located at the very entrance of the Rugova gorge near Pec. The complex of the Pec churches is the spiritual seat and mausoleum of Serbian archbishops and patriarchs. The temple of Holy Apostles was built by Archbishop Arsenije I in the third decade of the 13th century. He was also responsible for the painting of the church around 1260. Archbishop Nikodim built the temple of St. Demetrios next to the northern side of the church of Holy Apostles between 1321 and 1324, while Archbishop Danilo II built the churches dedicated to the Virgin Hodegetria and St. Nicholas on its southern side. He also built the monumental narthex in the shape of a magnificent open porch in front of the western facades of the churches of St. Demetrios, Holy Apostles and Holy Virgin Hodegetria. At the time of Patriarch Makarije, the elegant openings with dual arcades were walled up. An entire history of the styles of medieval wall painting can be seen on the walls of the Pec churches. The church of Holy Apostles was also decorated around 1300, then around 1350 and 1375 and twice in the 17th century. The church of St. Demetrios was painted for the first time at the time of Patriarch Joakinije, around 1345, and the new layer of frescoes was painted by Georgije Mitrofanovic around 1619-1620. The church of the Holy Virgin Hodegetria was painted before 1337, while its narthex was painted in the 14th and 16th centuries. The church of St. Nicholas was painted by painter Radul in 1673/1674. The Monastery is under permanent conservation protection. 
  • 3. DECANI MONASTERY - The Monastery is the endowment and mausoleum of King Stephen Decanski, whose son Dusan continued works on it after his father's death. The catholicon dedicated to Christ Pantocrator was built by Father Vita from Kotor between 1327 and 1335, who clothed the ground plan and structure of an Orthodox temple in a Romanesque rendition of the facades with many sculpted ornaments. The frescoes have been almost completely preserved and contain over 1000 individual figures and scenes grouped into over twenty cycles representing the largest preserved source of data on Byzantine iconography. Especially interesting is a series of historical portraits and iconography of the ruling dynasty. The iconostasis with the throne icons is original as are most of the churchís mobile property. The Decani Treasury is the richest in Serbia with about 60 icons from the 14th century to the 17th century, old manuscripts and other liturgical objects. Unlike the church, almost all the other buildings of the monastery have lost their original appearance. Conservation works in the whole complex has been going on since the 1930s on a continuous basis, primarily involving the occasional cleaning of the frescoes and repairs of the substantially damaged stone facade and sculpted stone elements. In 1994, the monument was nominated for inscription on the List of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. 
  • 4. DJURAKOVAC, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - The little Djurakovac Church has one nave, semi-oval vault, apse which is three-sided from outside and semi-circular inside and the wooden narthex. It was built with trimmed and broken stone and limestone soaked in mortar and the roof is covered with stone blocks. It was erected on the foundations of an older building from the 14th century which is evidenced by the tombstone of a Danilo, possibly a founder, from 1362. It was completely renewed by the villagers headed by priest Cvetko in 1592 and was painted by "sinful Milija zugraf (painter)" as evidenced by the inscription above the entrance to the naos. The paintings are of average value for that age and were renewed in 1863. The architectural renewal also included the erection of wooden narthex with the door decorated with shallow relief with the inscriptions of the names of founders and engravers. The roofs of narthex and altar are lower than the naos and the floor of exonarthex is considerably below the level of soil. The shrine belongs to the group of cemetery churches similar to those in the Beli Drim valley and represents a rare combination of stone and wood. In its interior, imperial gates built during the transition from the 16th century to the 17th century are kept as well as four big icons from 1630 and the manuscript Bogorodicnik (the book of poems about the Virgin) from the 16th century. In the graveyard surrounding the church, in its older part which stretches to the new one, the tombstone with a deer can be noticed. Conservation works on the architecture, paintings and iconography took place in 1968. 
  • 5. CRKOLEZ, CHURCH OF ST. JOHN - The Church of St. John, built by 1355 on the old graveyard above the village of Crkolez, is the endowment of landlord Radoslav (John as monk), buried in the shrine. It was mentioned in the charter of nun Jevgenija (Duchess Milica) in 1395 by which it was confirmed that Duke Novak and his wife Vidosava presented the Church of St. John as a gift to the Monastery of St. Panteleimon on Mt. Athos (Holy Mountain). The building is a typical village one-nave church with narthex and semi-oval vault. The apse is five-sided from outside and there is a modest rosette on the western facade carved in the level of the surface of the wall. The paintings from the 14th century were repainted in 1672/1673 by a new layer of the well preserved paintings painted by Serbian most famous painter of the second half of the 17th century named Radul during the rule of Patriarch Maksim. This can be seen by the fresco-inscription on the southern window. Particularly interesting is the detailed representation of the Last Judgment with many sinners, who by their social status belong to the village environment, as well as believers. The inscriptions are written in the folk language which is rare and is a special value of this fresco entity. Eight icons and imperial gates from the old iconostasis are preserved. An exceptionally valuable old collection of manuscripts on parchment and paper dating from the 13th century to the 16th century was kept at Crkolez by 1955 to be moved to the Decani Treasury. Conservation and restoration works on the paintings took place in 1972/1973. 
  • 6. BUDISAVCI, CHURCH OF CHIRSTíS TRANSFIGURATION - The church dedicated to Christís Transfiguration was built in the village of Budisavci, 17 km east of Pec, in the 14th century. It is not known whether it was the endowment of a landowner or the founder was King Milutin as can be assumed on the basis of the partially preserved inscription on a stone tablet built in the eastern side of the apse. The tradition even relates this shrine to the sister of King Stephen Decanski. The edifice has exceptionally harmonious proportions, with the foundation in the shape of equally-legged cross with the apse three-sided from outside, dome and narthex which, originally, was lower than the existing one from the 19th century. It was built by the alternate use of stone and brick which was arranged in a decorative manner on certain parts. The original paintings were completely destroyed and the church was partially in ruins. The monastery was renewed in 1568 under Patriarch Makarije. That time left us frescoes whose characteristic is a sure drawing and rich colours, while the representation of founder Makarije certainly falls within the most beautiful portraits of the Serbian painting of the 16th century. During the following centuries, various interventions were carried out on the Budisavci church as the metochion of the Patriarchate of Pec Monastery, both on the church and other monastery buildings. The special treasure of the Budisavci treasury is the icon of the patron saint of the shrine from the end of the 14th century and the beginning of the 15th century. 
  • 7. BELI DRIM MONASTERIES AND CHURCHES - The part of the Beli Drim valley (whose administrative seats today are Klina of Metohija and Malisevo) is an area whose material traces of life can be reliably followed throughout the entire middle age and the period of the Turkish rule in the Balkans. One of the first Serbian local ascetics of the early 13th century, saint Petar Koriski, was born, entered the monastic order and began his ascetic life precisely in that area. In the Beli Drim basin, the monastic life in mid-14th century was organized under the auspices of Decani (Dobra Voda, Dolac), while the rich district villages (Cabici) belonged to the Decani lands. The mention of their names in hrisovuljas (official documents with a gold seal), which remained unchanged to the present date, is the best proof of the continuity, intensive and creative life in this part of Metohija. Later on, in the changed political and historical conditions, those activities did not lose in their intesiveness. Adjusted to the new conditions, they were expressed in more reduced forms and more modest artistic achievements of the local founders, most frequently villagers of those villages (Drsnik, even two churches in tiny Pogradje, as well as Kijevo and Mlecane, today in the municipality of Malisevo). It is a noble task to preserve them, in their diversity, for future generations. 
  • 8. DOBRA VODA, MONASTERY - The hardly accessible crest near the village of Dobra Voda (Unjemir) over the Klina river is most probably the place where ascetic Petar Koriski became a monk in the 13th century. An one-nave stone church of Sts. Peter and Paul as a metochion of the Decani Monastery was erected there in the 1340s. It had the dome on free columns and the pairs of built semi-circular niches on the lateral walls. Sculptural ornaments of stone basis and capitals in the late Gothic style as well as the way it was built testify that it was built by coastal masons. Painted fragments of three standing figures are enough to claim that they were painted by the painters of such stylistic orientation that represents the paintings of the Decani church. During the great renewal in the second half of the 16th century the old church was converted into narthex and enlarged by a modest one-nave church with semi-circular apse, while a spacious storeyed exonarthex was added on its western side. Wall paintings decorated only the apse and lunettes. At a certain period of time, a monastery was built around the church which is evidenced by the remains of massive walls, towers and entry gate. This magnificent edifice with the layers representing many ages is today in ruins and minor conservation works took place in 1966-1967.   
  • 9. DOLAC, CHURCH OF THE PRESENTATION OF THE VIRGIN - According to archeological data, there was a monastery on the elevation above the village of Dolac already in the 14th century. The Turkish census of 1455 mentioned the names of its three monks. The great renewal of the monastery at the end of the 16th century and in the first decades of the 17th century is evidenced by the stone remains of the fence wall, tower, entry gate and the fountain, while the storeyed dormitories of the monks are certainly of a later date. A small one-nave church with semi-circular apse is located in the centre of the churchyard. Its only architectural decoration is the arch leaning against consoles which have the contour of the dome on the transversal facades. It has been recently noticed that there are even three chronologically different groups of wall paintings within the church. The oldest, in the zone of standing figures on the western and northern walls, could date back to the transition from the 14th century to the 15th century and, according to the stylistic characteristics, they are attributed to the famous Zrze workshop of monk Makarije. The frescoes in the eastern part of the church date back to the end of the 15th century or the beginning of the 16th century, while the third phase is dated back to 1619/1620. There is no usual founderís inscription, but the names of contributors are written besides the frescoes whose painting they paid. Minor archeological excavation was carried out in the complex in the 1993-1995 period and necessary conservation works on frescoes took place in 1991. 
  • 10. DRSNIK, CHURCH OF ST. PARASKEVE - Today, a small church is located in the centre of the village dedicated to popular skoropomocnica (one who helps immediately) St. Paraskeve. Its outer facades are mortared. The church has the stone socle of the roughly arranged stone and the two-guttered roof covered with stone blocks. The one-nave shrine with undivided space is vaulted by the semi-oval vault along its length. The alter apse having the outer irregular semi-circular shape represents from within a deep semi-circular niche which took over the function of the holy throne. Diakonikon and prothesis have niches of rectangular shape on the walls along its length besides semi-circular niches on the eastern wall. Two narrow windows - one on the southern and the other on the apse wall - provide light to the interior. Wall paintings are preserved only on lower surfaces including - besides the standard altar contents - the zones of the socle, standing figures, frieze with saintsí busts on medallions and the scenes from the cycle of Great Feasts with added chosen pictures from the cycle of Passion of Christ. As to the style, the frescoes show a sure drawing and the variety of colours and since they are technologically at an enviable level they were the work of an experienced art workshop. Since there are no historical data about the church, it is dated back to the 1570s on the basis of the characteristics of the wall paintings. 
  • 11. POGRADJE, UPPER CHURCH - At least three construction phases can be recognized among the remains of a big temple at Pogradje called by the villagers Holy Anargyroi (doctors who healed free of charge). The oldest part is the church in the narrow sense of the word - one-nave naos with arches leaning against the longer walls and the apse preserved in traces. The narthex built subsequently has almost square foundation and is preserved to the height of the beginning of the vault. The remaining wall paintings present unmarked standing figures of saints in the richly decorated clothes. Although small, the fragments lead to the possible conclusion that they were painted by the same painters who painted in the nearby Lower Church, so that this phase could date back to the second half of the 16th century. The third construction phase is represented by the part of wall with rectangular niche leaning against the western corner of the northern facade of narthex. Since the wall has not been archeologically explored, nothing can be said for certain about its original shape and use. 
  • 12. POGRADJE, LOWER CHURCH - The cemetery church, today dedicated to Holy Anargyroi Cosmas and Damian, most probably originally had St. Nicholas as its patron, while, subsequently, the villagers gathered there on the holiday of St. Demetrios. Modest one-nave and semi-oval vaulted space is without narthex and with semi-circular niches which mark the prothesis, altar apse and diakonikon. From the outside, the altar apse is semi-circular. The only entrance with arch and lunette is on the western wall, while the three remaining facades have a small window without ornaments. The architectural characteristic of this church is the elevated floor to the level of solea (elevated part in front of the altar) by one stair. The preserved fresco fragments indicate that the approximate time of its building can be considered the second half of the 16th century. Today, wall paintings include the zone of standing figures and some compositions from the cycle of Great Feasts. As to the style, drawings and the bright colours of paintings are of a standard quality and indicate to the average talent of an anonymous painter. Having been ruined for a long time, the church was renewed during extensive restoration works in the 1964-1967 period, domed and covered with two-gutter roof with stone blocks, while the wall paintings underwent conservation and were cleaned from the layers of soot and salt. 
  • 13. CABICI, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - The medieval settlement of Cabici was the biggest village of the Decani estate mentioned in hrisovulje (official documents with a gold seal) in mid-16th century. A modest, one-nave, semi-ovally vaulted church built with trimmed stone and covered by stone blocks on two-guttered roof was erected there at the end of the 16th century or at the beginning of the 17th century. The only ornament decorating the eastern and western facades is a slightly raised arch marking the contour of the dome. The altar apse is three-sided from outside and semi-circular in its interior, while prothesis and diakonikon are replaced by the pairs of niches. The iconostasis was built subsequently with two passages to the altar. It was built to the height of the dome and had icons on a board. There is one narrow window on the apse and on the southern wall. The interior is decorated by frescoes with the repertoire which, above the zone of standing figures, represents the cycles of Great Feasts and the life of patron. Judging by bright colours, insecure drawing and miniature proportions of figures, the paintings were painted by a painter of modest talent, more inclined to iconography, in the first decades of the 17th century. Icons, which were kept in the church until recently, are of higher artistic value than the wall paintings. Narthex which was built subsequently is today in ruins. Architectural conservation works and the cleaning of paintings were carried out in 1968.   
  • 14. KIJEVO, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - It is located in the spacious churchyard beside the village cemetery and it belongs to the group of monasteries and churches in the Beli Drim valley that were erected after the renewal of the Pec Patriarchate. The one-nave building was successively enlarged by narthex and belfry. This small church vaulted along its length was certainly built in the second half of the 16th century. The apse, semi-circular by shape from outside, is a niche inside. The church has no wall paintings. The narthex is a spacious building with rectangular foundation and is somewhat lower than the church, has semi-oval dome, is lit from a southern narrow window and has the entrance on the west. It has the completely preserved wall paintings from 1602/1603. The standard but exceptionally rich contents includes chosen Serbian saints, holy warriors and doctors in the zone of standing figures, developed composition of the Last Judgment, ten scenes from the cycle of Passion of Christ and the same number of scenes from the cycle of Christís activities and miracles as well as the decorations on the top of the vault. A large group of villagers as a collective founder did not succeed in engaging a talented painter so that the narrative wall paintings of the Kijevo narthex has careless drawing and unskillful composition. However, some rare iconography details deny the judgment about their self-taughtness. A solid storeyed belfry was built in front of narthex in the 19th century. Today, the church continues to keep the important collection of chronologically and stylistically different icons.   
  • 15. MLECANE, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - The village as the collective founder built this shrine with narthex and one-nave semi-circularly vaulted naos around 1600. Naos is separated from the altar space by a pair of pilasters linked by a semi-circular arch between which there was the iconostasis partition. Although the apse is constructed as a deep niche, its outer shape is semi-circular as usual, while the niches of prothesis and diakonikon are constructed within the width of the wall. There are no windows on the northern wall and the windows on the southern and eastern walls are high and narrow from the outside. The simple wall surface of trimmed stone is decorated only by a spacious niche on the southern facade of the narthex. Fragments of wall paintings dating back to 1601/1602 are preserved mainly in the zone of standing figures. Detailed presentation of the Last Judgment on the western wall of narthex stretches partially to the longer walls. Bright colours, sure drawing and inclination towards decorativeness are most prominent on the horse presentations of St. George and St. Demetrios in narthex and the basic characteristics of painters who decorated the temple. After being in ruins for a long time, conservation and restoration works were carried out in 1968 and the church assumed its original shape. 
  • 16. GORIOC MONASTERY - The Gorioc Monastery (Gorioca, Ogorioc), metochion of the Decani Monastery with the Church of St. Nicholas, dormitories of the monks and belfry, is located on Bela Stena (White Stone) above the little town of Istok. According to the folk tradition, it was built by King Stephen Decanski who devoted it to St. Nicholas as a sign of gratitude for healing his "burned" eyes on that place. However, since the same tradition is linked to a number of other toponymys it is not possible to establish for sure which place was really the endowment of the healed King. The old church of St. Nicholas at Gorioc, most probably from the 14th century, is not preserved. It was renewed in the 16th and 18th centuries and at the beginning of the 20th century. The church of St. Nicholas is a modest one-nave semi-ovally vaulted building without wall paintings. It keeps 11 icons painted during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The Monastery used to keep a rich collection of Serbian medieval books, including several Serbian manuscripts from the 14th and 15th centuries which the Russian Consul and historian A. Gilferding took from the Monastery. Today, they are kept in the Public Library in Petrograd. During World War Two, the Monastery was used by Albanian fascists as a prison for mass arrests of Serbs and Montenegrins. In the churchyard, dormitories of the monks, belfry and the fountain were restored. 
  • 17. GORAZDEVAC, ST. JEREMIAH CHURCH-LOG CABIN - The church-log cabin of St. Jeremiah, near Pec, is the oldest church of that kind in Serbia. It was dated back, on the basis of the imperial gates, to the end of the 16th century or the beginning of the 17th century. According to the folk tradition, it was built by Srbljaci, the oldest tribe in that area. Since this was the name for the inhabitants in the upper course of the Lim river who were expelled from their homes and settled in Metohija in 1737/1738, this church might have been built at the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth decade of the 18th century at the earliest. The church has modest dimensions, with shallow foundations and very simple architecture. It has the rectangular basis, with two-sided apse as the result of cutting two acute sides. The roof is low and covered with heavy stone blocks. The interior is divided into narthex, main church and the altar area. Partitions are built in the walls in the same manner in which the whole church is built. The floor is made of irregular stone blocks, while the ceiling is flat and made of boards. Attention is drawn by two small openings in the boards in the shape of equally-sided cross and double six-leaf rosette. Movable property mentioned in the literature is no longer in the church. By the time when it was built this is the oldest church and by its location the only one church-log cabin outside todayís main area. Detailed restoration and conservation works were carried out in 1968.   
  • 18. LODJANE, DANILOVICSí LOG CABIN - In the vicinity of Decani, in the centre of the village of Locane, there is a log cabin built most probably in the first decade of the 18th century. Its age can be determined on the basis of the folk tradition which says that the first fire in the Decani Monastery was brought from the fireplace of this cabin. It is built on the flat terrain, it has the rectangular foundation and a porch, four-guttered roof covered with tiles. It was built in phases, enlarged by a room and a store room to the original one-space log cabin intended for the residence of people and the accommodation of livestock. By its enlargements, it was converted from the archaic plain cabin to a peasantís house. By reminding, originally, of the biblical concept of residence and, after its conversion, of the process of transforming rayah into peasants, Danilovicsí log cabin, as the oldest preserved cabin in Serbia, represents the testimony to the social and historical events and the position of the Serbian people in Kosovo and Metohija endangered by the violence of foreign, heterodox and aggressive Albanian settlers, which also found reflection in the said folk tradition as the confirmation of its age, i.e. the long-standing existence of Serbs in this territory and their rights to it. The log cabin is still functioning today. Despite its exceptional value, no conservation works were carried out.   
  • 19. PEC, BAJRAKLI MOSQUE - It is located in the town centre. The precise time of its construction is not known, but it is supposed that it was built already in the first decades of the Turkish occupation, i.e. in the second half of the 15th century. It is called the main mosque in the town since by flying its banner on the minaret it determines the time when other mosques should begin their prayers. It is a monumental edifice with octangular dome, 11.65 m in diameter, leaning on pandantiphs above the central area. The top of calotte is high 13.5 m from the floor. A high open porch with three cupolas leaning on lateral walls and four columns linked by arches is in front of the entrance to the central area. The high and slender polygonal minaret is leaning on the main dome. The high mihvil (gallery), elevated above the entrance, is leaning on the columns with capitals and is stretching along the entire wall. Its fence is richly decorated by ornamental carvings, while the supporting arches are painted with floral ornaments. Mihrab (central preaching niche) is marked by a shallow niche, while mimbar (pulpit), in the southern-eastern part of the mosque, is built of marble and has monumental dimensions. Especially interesting is the fountain with carved floral medallion and the symbols of Moon and stars as well as the tablets with Arabic inscriptions. The cemetery also has interesting carved sights. Of particular importance is the sarcophagus of Hajri-beg Miralaj with the relief of heraldic meaning, floral ornaments and the representation of weapons and object-symbols.   
  • RECOGNIZED CULTURAL MONUMENTS 
  • MUNICIPALITY OF ISTOK
  • 1. Banjica - remains of the classical and early christian basilica, 6th century 
  • 2. Belica - church of St. George, 14th-15th century; remains of the church with the old cemetery, 14th-16th century 
  • 3. Dobrusa, Vucar - remains of the church with the cemetery, 14th century 
  • 4. Zac - stone bridge over the river Istok on the road to Budisavci, 17th century 
  • 5. Istok - corn crib in the house of Radoje Djuric, 20th century; church of Sts. Peter and Paul, 1929. 
  • 6. Kalicani - mosques from the 19th and 20th century 
  • 7. Kos - villlage residential building with the granary and residential tower, 19th century 
  • 8. Ljubovo - church of St. Basil from Ostrog, 19th century 
  • 9. Suvo Grlo, Gradina or Gradiste - two fortifications on two hills, 13th-14th century; remains of the fortified town with mine shafts, 14th century 
  • 10. Crni Lug - remains of the church with the old cemetery, 16th-19th century 
  • MUNICIPALITY OF SRBICA 
  • 1. Banja Rudnicka - landowner Rodop's church of St. Nicholas, before 1432, reconstructed in the 20th century 
  • 2. Gornji Obilic - Roman necropolis 
  • 3. Leocina - church of St. John, 14th century; "Preobraska" (Transfiguration) church, 14th century; engraved cross in the Zdravko Smigic's house, 14th-16th century 
  • 4. Rudnik - church of St. George with cemetery, 16th century 
  • MUNICIPALITY OF PEC 
  • 1. Belo Polje - church of the Virgin, 16th-18th century 
  • 2. Bucane - old cemetery of the Stojkovic family, 18th century 
  • 3. Vranovac - archeological site from the late Iron Age and early Byzantine period, 8th century B.C. and 6th century A.D. 
  • 4. Dobri Do - archeological site from the late Iron Age and early Byzantine period, 8th-V century B.C. and 6th century A.D. 
  • 5. Krusevac - archeological site from the classical and early Byzantine period, 2nd-6th century 
  • 6. Krusevo - church with the tombstone, 14th century  
  • 7. Ljevosa, Idvorac - remains of the fortress, 13th-14th century; remains of the church of St. Demetrios in Metina livada, 14th century;Zdrelnik - remains of the fortified site with the well, 13th-14th century; remains of the church of St. George, 14th century; remains of the church of St. Mark, 14th century; remains of the church of St. Nicholas, 14th century; old cemetery in "Savova livada", 17th century  
  • 8. Ljutoglava - on the hill near the village - remains of the fortified town, 13th century 
  • 9. Paskalica - remains of the Paskalija church, 13th century 
  • 10. Pec - archeological site Gradina from the late classical period, 3rd-4th century; Bajrakli - Ruzica Mosque, 16th century; Halil-beg's tombstone, 16th century; old patriarchate cemetery, 16th-19th century; old city center, 19th century; Jasar-pasha's house, 19th century; old city tower and haremluk (women department in the muslim house), 17. novembar st., 19th century; Tahir-beg's house, 19th century; residential towers of Camil Limani in 28 Bore Vukmirovic st., in 61 Bore Vukmirovic st., of Janicije Jokic in 24 Borisa Kidrica st. and of Mihailo Jovanovic in 7 Djure Salaja st., 19th century; Seremet tower and the Tower-water mill, 19th century; complex of the Hadzi Zeka's mill, 19th century; Ali pasha Gusinje's tombstone, 19th century; collection of the folk costume of the Begoli family, 19th-20th century; Hadzi-Zeka's tombstone, 20th century;  
  • 11. Plavljane - old cemetery, 16th-18th century 
  • 12. Radavac - caves of Radavac, prehistorical archeological site  
  • 13. Rugovo's gorge - caves hermitages, 13th-14th century 
  • 14. Siga - church of St. George (Demetrios), 16th century, reconstructed in the 20th century 
  • MUNICIPALITY OF KLINA 
  • 1. Veliki Djurdjevik - remains of the church, 14th century 
  • 2. Dolac - remains of the church from the 15th century with the old cemetery 
  • 3. Drsnik, locality Gradine - classical and early Byzantine fortified site, 2nd-6th century; locality Podvodno polje - villa rusticae from the Roman period; locality Celije - classical period; locality Zucajsko groblje, medieval necropolis 
  • 4. Klinavac, locality Gradina - remains of the medieval fortified town 
  • 5. Pogradje, Gradiste - remains of the fortified town, 14th century 
  • 6. Svrhe Volujacke - remains of the church, 14th century 
  • 7. Sicevo - church of St. Nicholas, 16th century 
  • 8. Uljarice - hermitage with the church, 13th-14th century 
  • 9. Stupelj - remains of the church of the Virgin, 14th-15th century 
  •   MUNICIPALITY OF DECANI 
  • 1. Gornji Streoc - Saban Curi's tower, 19th century 
  • 2. Gornji Crnobreg - residential towers of Ljah Seljmanaj and Ljah Ljosaj, 19th century 
  • 3. Decane - Belaje's hermitage, 14th century; residential towers of Ram Dobruna, Redz Aljija, Mus Iber Hisaj and Zimer Hima, 19th century 
  • 4. Istinic - Hadzi Os Miftari's residential tower, 19th century 
  • 5. Papracane - Ram Sabani's residential tower, 19th century  
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  • II DISTRICT OF PRIZREN 
  • GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:  
  • * Municipalities of Prizren, Orahovac, Suva Reka, Strpce and Urosevac 
  • * Kosovo and Metohija  
  • * Southern Serbia 
  • DESCRIPTION: 
  • The Sara - Drim River Valley (Podrima) region encompasses the northern slopes of Mt. Sara, Mt. Jezerska and the southernmost part of the Metohija valley and coincides with the northern section of the Sara National Park. In its territory there are a large number of monuments of exceptional value, concentrated primarily in Prizren (a fortress, construction of which first started in the 11th century; the churches of the Mother of God Ljeviska, St. Nicholas, St. Saviour and the Monastery of the Holy Archangels; the Sinan Pasha mosque and Turkish bath (hamam) from the 17th century), in the territory of two medieval districts established as early as in the 13/14th century - the districts of Sirinic and Sredska - with churches from the 16th and 17th centuries, churches, monasteries, hermit cells and castles from the time of the Serbian medieval state during the rule of the Nemanjic dynasty (Velika Hoca, Musutiste, Recani, Korisa, Nerodimlje), as well as a number of archaeological localities from the Early Iron Age to the Middle Ages, numerous examples of lay and sacral architecture from the 14th to 20th centuries, as well as an older facility of technical culture in Serbia, the Prizrenka hydroelectric power plant. The construction of the majority of the mentioned monuments of culture chronologically coincided with the period of rule of the Nemanjic dynasty over the independent Serbian state and they were built mainly as foundations of members of the ruling class or nobility, representing outstanding architectural and painting achievements of late Byzantine art. The concentration of a large number of monuments from prehistoric times to the 20th century in the territory of the Sara-Podrima district attests to the historic continuity of life in this region, which flourished between the 13th and 14th centuries when its largest urban centre (Prizren) was established along with several very important ecclesiastical-monastic centres and hermitages (Korisa, Velika Hoca, Musutiste, District of Sredska and District of Sirinic). 
  • COMPARISON WITH OTHER SIMILAR PROPERTIES: 
  • The Sara-Podrima region is a unique cultural and natural monumental complex reflecting historic and artistic trends at the time of the greatest rise of the Serbian medieval state and belongs to the territory which represented its core. Intensive urban and religious life in this area was sustained even during the period of Turkish domination in the Balkans and continues to this day, enriched by a series of lay and sacral architectural achievements demonstrating the impact of turbulent historic developments of the past two centuries. 
  • 1. PRIZREN, KALJAJA FORTRESS - The fortified town of Kaljaja is located above the present-day Prizren, on the hill of great strategic importance. The ramparts of the fortress are parallel with the edge of hill - the foundation has the shape of irregular ellipse, 190 m x 150 m. The main entrance to the fortress, divided into the Upper and Lower Town, was on the western rampart. The Upper Town encompassed the elevated area in the southern-eastern part of the fortress and was protected by separate ramparts stretching to the west and north. The Upper Town was entered through the gate in the western part of the internal rampart. Since it was used for centuries, the fortress changed its masters several times who pulled it down, repaired and enlarged it. Archeological excavations indicate two main periods of construction (medieval and Turkish), each having several phases of development. The medieval period consists of three phases: Byzantine Prizdrijana from the 11th century, the period of the 12th and 13th centuries and the objects built at the time of the rule of Emperor Dusan (southern tower, internal rampart, part of the eastern rampart to the underground passage and lower parts of the western rampart). The Turkish period consists of five phases and most objects belong to the second one dating back to the 17th century. These are: southern town, vaulted corridor built next to the southern rampart of the Upper Town, upper parts of the western rampart of the Lower Town with the main gate, eastern rampart with semi-circular tower and the underground passage leading to the Bistrica river. 
  • 2. PRIZREN, VIRGIN LJEVISKA - The Prizren cathedral dedicated to Virgin Mary was built by King Milutin in 1306/1307 on the remains of a church from the 13th century which had been built on the foundation of a basilica from the middle Byzantine period (9th-11th century) built on the foundation of an early Christian shrine. Mason Nicholas, who most probably came from Epirus, managed to build an architecturally very successful edifice whose centre is the five-dome church with the developed cross-in-square, surrounded by the lateral nave and narthex with open porch (today, its passages are walled up) and with a tower on the western side. Turks converted it into mosque and, in order to adjust it to their needs, chiselled the frescoes and repainted them. Very damaged paintings are of exceptional value and fall within the most successful fresco wholes from the time of the Byzantine dynasty of the Palaeologus. They were painted by the main painter Astrapa from Salonica together with his associates around 1310-1313 who, judging by modest remains of paintings, made an exceptionally original choice of compositions and individual figures and their iconographic solutions both in details and as a whole. Of particular importance are the portraits of founders and the procession of Nemanjics, ancestors of King Milutin, who are of supernatural size. Conservation and restoration architectural works were carried out in the 1950s, while the paintings were discovered under the layers of lime in 1950-1952 to be subsequently cleaned and retouched several times in the 1969-1979 period. 
  • 3. PRIZREN, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - The small church of landlord Dragoslav Tutic (Nicholas as monk) and his wife Bela is located in the centre of the present-day Prizren. According to the stone inscription, preserved only in fragments but of known contents on the basis of the transcript from the 19th century, it was built in 1331/1332 and most probably painted immediately after that. Subsequently, it became a metochion of the Decani Monastery. The one-nave church is of small dimensions, surpassed by the dome of octangular tambour with windows. A semi-circular apse with two semi-circular niches for prothesis and diakonikon is on the eastern side. It was built simply with stone and brick. Not many paintings are preserved. According to the subjects, arrangement and style, fresco paintings are related to those from the first phase of the church of St. Savior and in the church of St. George at Recani, so that it is considered that one workshop painted all three shrines. The same painters are considered to have painted two icons - Virgin Hodegetria from the iconostasis of the Virgin Ljeviska (in Cathedral church in Prizren) and the dual Ljubizda icon with the Annunciation and the Meeting between Ioakim and Anne (in the National Museum in Belgrade). Conservation and restoration works on architecture and paintings were carried out in the period between 1967 and 1970 when the entire dome underwent restoration. 
  • 4. PRIZREN, CHURCH OF ST. SAVIOR - The endowment of landlord Mladen Vladojevic with his parents, at the time of Dusanís rule, was built around 1330 and in 1348 given as a gift to the nearby monastery of Holy Archangels. The Vlach community in Prizren, which had the right to use this little church from the second half of the 18th century, built, in 1836, high walls of a future shrine which was never completed and the church of St. Savior thus became only a part of its northern nave. The medieval church is of small dimensions, with the foundation in the shape of the shortened cross-in-square with octangular dome and the apse three-sided from outside. It was decoratively built with neat alternate layers of limestone and brick and with ceramoplastic ornaments. The paintings were painted in two phases: firstly in the altar around 1335 and the paintings are of poorer quality and then in the rest of the church until 1348 when a part of the altar area was repainted. The original paintings on the altar were painted by one painter, a member of the workshop which also painted the church of St. Nicholas, endowment of Dragoslav Tutic. Small dimensioned frescoes from the second phase were painted by local painters educated by the good traditions of the Byzantine art who had a sure and prominent drawing. A third painter painted Christ and the Virgin Paraklisa in narthex most probably after 1348. The paintings were greatly damaged and a fire in the 19th century changed their palette. Conservation works on architecture and frescoes were carried out in the 1953-1963 period. 
  • 5. PRIZREN, HOLY ARCHANGELS' MONASTERY - In the canyon of the Bistrica river, 3 km south-east of Prizren, there is the monastery with the church of Holy Archangels which is the endowment and mausoleum of the most powerful Serbian medieval ruler, king and - from 1346 - emperor Dusan. The representative monastery complex is surrounded from two sides by the river banks and from the third side by the steep hill with the fortified town Visegrad. It consisted of the monumental church in the center, with the emperor's tomb, a refectory and the small church of St. Nicholas. Beside these buildings that are freely disposed in the churchyard, there was a number of quarters of different purposes leaned on rampart walls, such as dormitories of the monks, library, hospital. The monastery was built on the ancient multi-layer site. It was mostly completed between 1343 and 1352, under the supervision of the prior Jacob, who was later the bishop in Serres. Catholikon with the foundation in the shape of the cross-in-square was extremely luxuriously built and plated with marble; it was decorated with sculpture which was the extension of the tradition of the so-called Raska style, wall paintings of high quality on the golden background and the mosaic floor with floral or zoomorphic motives. Although the upper part of the church cannot be completely reconstructed - even the number of the domes (one or five) is unknown - it is possible to recognize some of the features of the new, so-called Morava architecture model that was developed several decades later. The refectory represents an outstanding example by its cross-shaped foundation. From the mid-15th century, whith the arrival of Turks, the destruction of the monastery began. In the 17th century the demolition was accelerated for the reason that the building material was used for the construction of the Sinan Pashaís mosque in Prizren. Rich sculpted and fresco program and - in Serbian architecture - unique mosaic floor are only fragmentary preserved. Between two World Wars certain archeological excavations were carried out; the monastery, that had been ruined for centuries and now reduced to an archeological site, today has an appearance which is the result of the archeological and conservation works that were carried out in the 1960s. The restoration both of the monastery and the monastic life began in 1990s with the partial archeological excavations as well as with the construction of the new residential quarter on the former foundations, east of the catholikon's altar apse. 
  • 6. PRIZREN, SINAN PASHAíS MOSQUE - It was built in 1615, i.e. in 1026 according to the Hegira Islamic system of measuring time. In the interior on the wall there is an inscription "Jennet - misali" - Paradisiacal. It was built using the material from the previously torn down monastery of the Holy Archangels near Prizren. The diameter of the cupola is about 14.5 meters. According to its architecture, it belongs to the so-called classical style of Osmanli art, although it is a rather rare example in terms of its spatial concept. The ground plan consists of two areas: the main prayer area and the area containing the mihrab (central preaching niche). It was built of neatly dressed stone blocks. The mosque has a tall and slender polygonal minaret. The porch was torn down in the past so that its present-day appearance does not correspond to the original one. The interior features a sculpted gallery (mahvil). Ornamental decorations were painted on the internal walls on several occasions of which the oldest layer in the cupola calotte were painted in 1628. 
  • 7. PRIZREN, HAMAM (TURKISH BATH) - In the old part of the town of Prizren, the Turkish bath is dominant as a building which is proportionally shaped and which was built by Gazi Mehmed-pasha in the 17th century. It is a dual bath, meaning that one half was used by men and the other by women. The halves are divided by the central lateral wall to almost identical wholes. Within each half, the rooms are strictly divided according to their use. These are: the entrance area with dressing room and fountain in the centre, room for rest, bath, steam room, water reservoir and water heating room. The bath was built with stone and brick alternatively. The construction and spatial concepts of the building speak of a very good mason who showed special skill in the construction of dome and cupolas. Conservation works were carried out in 1968. 
  • 8. SIRINIC DISTRICT, CHURCHES - The medieval district of Sirinic was located in the stretched Lepenica ravine on the northern slopes of Sara Mountain. It was mentioned already in the fourth decade of the 14th century in the charters released first by King and subsequently Emperor Dusan to the Hilandar Monastery confirming the possession of its lands. Inhabited by cattle breeders, the district could hardly have a shrine made of a more lasting material. Therefore, despite its very old age, the continuity of spiritual life in this district was followed from the second half of the 16th century on the basis of the material evidence. The aspiration can be noted that every village should have its own shrine, sometimes not only on cemeteries but also within settlements so that, at the end of the 19th century, a traveller counted eleven shrines in eight Sirinic villages. Today, only four of them have kept some authentic architectural elements after the renewal of the Pec Patriarchate in 1557. Simple, one-nave, vaulted and without narthex, the churches of the Sirinic district are characteristic by their leaning columns which are almost obligatory as an architectural ornament on the outside polygonal apses. Fragments of the preserved paintings are the works of local, village painters and primarily have cultural significance. 
  • 9. BITINJA, GORNJA (UPPER) AND DONJA (LOWER) - The church of St. George at Gornja Bitinja, built most probably immediately after the renewal of the Pec Patriarchate, underwent significant renewal in 1920. However, even during the renewal, the one-nave structure of the naos was retained, as well as the small semi-circular apse, in contrast to other apses, and a part of the floor originally made of the blocks from the nearby, then already destroyed, Prizren monastery of Holy Archangels. The fresco inscription which is lost today testified that the founder of paintings was a certain Jelena, while another stone inscription said that Nikodin Prtusin donated a water mill, forest and a meadow to the church in 1592. The cemetery church of St. Theodore Tiro at Donja Bitinja has a similar architectural structure to the shrine in the neighbouring village, the difference being that the former has three-sided apse from outside. Only fragments on the western wall and in the altar area have left from the paintings painted in the 1560s. Having an average quality for the paintings of that time, a limited palette and certain roughness in drawings, the frescoes are the work of a village painter whose expressiveness cannot be denied. The fact that he used somewhat rare motives is testified by the composition of the Assumption which, besides the earthly events, includes the assumption in heaven. The church keeps the icon representing the vision of prophet Eliah from 1635/1636 which could be a throne icon by its dimensions.  
  • 10. GOTOVUSA, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - There are two churches at Gotovusa and the older one is located on the village cemetery, today dedicated to St. Savior which is also known as the church of St. Demetrios. However, the fact that it was originally dedicated to St. Nicholas is beyond any doubt considering the founderís fresco inscription partially preserved on the western wall of naos, above the entrance. Simple, small, one-nave building with the three-sided apse from outside is vaulted with the semi-oval vault and covered with the two-guttered stone-blocks roof. The facade decoration, besides the niche above the entrance on the western facade and the prayersí niche on the northern facade, includes niches of particular shape on all sides of the apse and the leaning columns connected by arch emphasizing the eastern surface of the apse. Fragments of the preserved paintings include two zones with the scenes from the Great Feasts cycle, decoration of the ceiling with friezes each having ten prophetsí busts and on the top the medallions with the figures of Christ Emmanuel, Angels of the Great Council, the Pantocrator as well as the upper part of the Ascension composition. The paintings in the altar area are best preserved and are reduced to the usual motives and the most necessary figures, so that the Liturgy of Archpriests represents only St. Basil the Great and St. John Chrysostom. Since similar paintings can be found in the neighbouring churches of the Sredska district, at Bogosevac and Gornje Selo, it is believed that the paintings date back to the 1570s.   
  • 11. STRPCE, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - On the basis of the transcription of the destroyed foundersíinscription it is known that the church of St. Nicholas was built and decorated with paintings in 1576/1577 with the donations of many villagers. The old village mentioned in a Turkish written source of 1455 as having 65 households got a shrine of a lasting material. After the renewal in the 19th century, only a part of the apse and of the northern wall were left showing a careful building technique with the trimmed stone and the five-sided apse konha from outside. The decorative element in the building is expressed in leaning columns to the juncture of sides. The great quality of the original paintings is testified by a figure of a deacon in the northern part of the altar and several fragments in socle zone. During the great renewal, the western wall was pulled down in order to enlarge the church while other walls were made higher and arched. Furthermore, the church got a belfry and it seems that painter Jevgenije from Galicnik, who painted the iconostasis for the new church of the Virgin Mary at Gotovusa in 1888, painted the icons for the renewed Strpce shrine.    
  • 12. SREDSKA DISTRICT, CHURCHES - East of Prizren, in the gorge of Prizrenska Bistrica, several mountainous villages around the village of Sredska have been established as a district ever since the middle age. It was mentioned for the first time in the donation charter of King Dragutin to the Hilandar Monastery in 1276-1281; it became more important at the time of Emperor Dusan through the building of the monastery of Holy Archangels, while its increasing economic strength can be followed in the Turkish documents from the beginning of the 16th century. The material traces of such a rise are churches built in every village and hamlet starting with around 1530 until mid-17th century. One-nave, semi-ovally vaulted churches without narthex, with apses three-sided from outside being only long niches inside, were built mainly with trimmed stone, while the facades had niches as the only decoration. The villagers took every effort to equip their churches, they engaged painters, ordered icons for iconostases and items necessary for the service, noting their names in the foundersí inscriptions. The second wave of the intensive construction in the Sredska district, when old churches were repaired and new ones were built, took place in the changed political conditions before the liberation from Turks in the short period between 1865 and 1875. Although they, then, lost part of their authenticity, the churches of the Sredska district illustrate interesting changes in the district at the time of the re-establishment of the Pec Patriarchate.    
  • 13. BOGOSEVCI, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - The one-nave semi-ovally vaulted church dating back, on the basis of its architectural characteristics and paintings, to the end of the 16th century or the beginning of the 17th century is located on the village graveyard, on the terraced plateau falling sharply towards the river bank. It will never be possible to determine when it was built since the founderís fresco inscription is damaged. The narrow interior, lit by one window on the south and east, has only semi-circular niches of the altar and prothesis. The altar niche is three-sided from outside and the northern facade surface, with no openings, has two niches. The preserved paintings indicate that they were used for prayers so that they have - as fresco icons - the down-to-the-waist representations of Holy Archangel Michael and St. Paraskeve. The well preserved whole of wall paintings inside the church is the work of an unknown painter of sure drawing and inclined to narration so that he managed to present the full usual contents without summarizing it in this small temple. Judging by the preserved icon of St. Barbara, he most probably painted the icons for the altar partition. The church was enlarged by the poorly built narthex with wooden belfry over it. Minor architectural conservation works took place in 1959-1960.   
  • 14. GORNJE SELO, CHURCH OF ST. GEORGE - The history of the cemetery church of St. George at Gornje Selo (Upper Village) is not known, but its architecture and paintings belong to the 1570s and the first decades of the 17th century. The church consists of three successively built units. The eastern one is the oldest - the original one-nave semi-ovally vaulted temple with the altar and prothesis niches. By pulling down the western wall naos was extended and expanded and two entrances in the church were made, one from the west and the other from the south. A stone shallow-relief tablet with the blooming cross and two birds on it is above the southern entrance. The third phase is represented by narthex with wooden domed belfry. Paintings are preserved only in the oldest part of the church, on its three remaining walls. Stylistically very similar to the paintings at Bogosevci and Gotovusa from the Sirinic district, wall paintings are attributed to the same painters characterized by narrativeness, free drawing and live colours.   
  • 15. DRAJCICI, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - Shallow and semi-circular apse is the characteristic that, architecturally, differs the Drajcici church from other churches belonging to the Sredska group. It is also interesting that this one-nave semi-ovally vaulted edifice has the floor with stone tiles lower in naos and elevated at the level of solea and the altar area. The southern facade has a semi-circular niche with the down-to-the-waist fresco painting of an archangel. The period of the described first phase of the construction of the church is determined on the basis of paintings as the last decade of the 16th century. The original appearance was changed by the removal of the western wall and the significant extension of naos in the 1630s. In addition to architectural changes, the restoration also implied the repainting of the church so that the new paintings covered or replaced almost the entire old ones. The quality of the original wall paintings can be judged today only by the icons preserved in the iconostasis in the throne series and the frieze making the Great Deesis which is supposed to be the work of the same painter. Characterized by sure drawing and the noble colours, these works are the expression of a mature painter who, by wide strokes, defined the form and achieved magnificence that lacks in other painters from the same region. Conservation works on icons were carried out in 1960-1961.   
  • 16. MUSNIKOVO, CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES - The church originally dedicated to the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul whose patron today is St. Paraskeve is located above the village of Musnikovo. It was built and painted in 1563/1564 and extensively renewed in the second half of the 19th century. That restoration included the removal of the western wall, expansion of naos by the width of wall and its extension to the west, the enlargement of windows and the changing of the appearance of the front - instead of triangular it got a high sloping gable. The original appearance of the church shows that it was built with trimmed stone, without ornaments, and that it had an apse three-sided from outside. In the interior, only two niches necessary for rites were built, the altar and prothesis. Although only a small part of the original fresco paintings was preserved, the work of a painter who gained knowledge in one of the Cretan workshops is recognizable in the zone of standing figures on the southern wall. Besides Greek inscriptions and style, recognizable is also the rare iconography solution of the representation of St. Peter and St. Paul in an embrace painted next to the original iconostasis. Another painter from the same group who painted the altar is considerably less talented. During the architectural conservation works carried out in 1962 the ruined church got the dome and the two-guttered roof covered by stone blocks.   
  • 17. MUSNIKOVO, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - At the village cemetery, there is an old church considerably surpassed, in size, by the subsequently built narthex which is wider and higher than the small church on whose western facade it is leaning. The original temple is one-nave, with undivided space, semi-ovally vaulted and with three semi-circular niches in the altar area. Lateral niches are built in the wall, while the altar niche is three-sided from outside. The church was built with trimmed stone and its facades have one niche each. There are three narrow and high windows on the southern wall, while a window on the eastern side casts light on the holy throne. Pomenik (requiem book) inscribed beside the prothesis niche cannot help in determining when the church was built, so that, on the basis of the stylistic characteristics of the preserved wall paintings, it is considered that the church dates back to the second half of the 16th century. The usual contents, which summarizes the cycles of Great Feasts and Passion of Christ, is also characteristic for that time, while in the context of iconography the attention is primarily drawn by the representation of St. Sava Nemanjic, characteristic for the cap adorned with crosses. As to the style, the frescoes of this church are of a considerably poorer quality in comparison with the works of an unknown group which painted the nearby church of the Holy Apostles. 
  • 18. SREDSKA, CHURCH OF THE HOLY VIRGIN - At the hamlet of Pejcici, today north of the highway, there is the biggest but also the youngest church in the group of churches of the Sredska district, dedicated to the Holy Virgin. One-nave, semi-ovally vaulted temple, with the altar apse which is shallow and three-sided from outside and in the shape of niche in its interior, had been probably built several years before it was painted, i.e. in 1646/1647. It was built thanks to the contributions of a great number of villagers whose names are mentioned in the foundersí fresco inscription. The well preserved paintings include the zones of standing figures, saintsí busts in medallions, compositions of the cycles of the Passion of Christ and Great Feasts arranged in two separate columns and the standard decoration of the altar and vault areas. With the gamut reduced to colour and the prominent drawing, the paintings of this church are rather illustrative than having artistic value. In the second half of the 19th century, a square storeyed narthex and a light wooden belfry above it were built in front of the church. 
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  • 19. SREDSKA, CHURCH OF ST. GEORGE - In the middle of the village of Sredska, by the village road, there is a miniature church for which the villagers say that it was a family chapel and which is certainly the oldest and the most interesting monument of this district. This status of the church is ensured because of its simple architecture (one-nave foundation with the apse hardly rounded from outside, semi-oval vault and exterior dimensions of little over 5 m of length and 3 m of width) and the exceptionally high quality of its frescoes. An unknown painter did not pay any attention to the dimensions of the building and, already in the first zone below the painted arcades, he painted monumental and exceptionally modelled figures of holy doctors and holy warriors clad in lively aristocratic garments. He painted the Liturgy of Archpriests and Virginís bust with angels in the small altar niche and archdeacon Stephen in the prothesis niche. The light translucent colours and the inclination towards decorativeness contribute to the fact that, out of the previously offered years in the literature, we accept the year of 1530 as the most acceptable. Finally, it should be added that these frescoes attract attention also because of the painting technology since they were painted on the mud mortar with coarse chaff. 
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  • 20. VELIKA HOCA - The village of Velika Hoca is located in the picturesque hilly area full of vineyards south of Orahovac in Metohija. Hoca was well known in the historical sources already at the end of the 12th century by its cultivated vineyards and wines. In 1198 Stephen Nemanja donated it to the Hilandar Monastery, emphasizing that he himself established two vineyards. Nemanjaís descendants, Serbian kings, confirmed his gift to Hilandar and, at the same time, enlarged the Hoca lands. In the middle age, Velika Hoca developed into a strong economic and important spiritual centre. The sources mention its 12 churches: St. Nicholas from the 14th century, St. John from the 14th century, St. Stephen from the 14th century renewed in the 16th and 19th centuries, St. Cyriace renewed in the 19th century, St. Paraskeve rebuilt in the 20th century, St. Anne rebuilt in 1912, ruins of the church of St. Luke from the 16th century renewed in 1985; the following churches are preserved in ruins: Holy Archangels from the 16th century, St. Peter from the 16th century, Holy Virgin Precista, St. Eliah; a church at Dugi Rid is also mentioned in the folk tradition. The monumental wine cellar of the Decani Monastery, with its vineyards in Hoca ever since the time of Emperor Dusan, is in the Decani quarter in the centre of village. The ground floor of this exceptional achievement of the folk architecture contains cellars with barrels which are 5 m high and 4 m wide. The upper floor with a long wooden trench has rooms for the rest of winegrowers. 
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  • 21. VELIKA HOCA, CHURCH OF ST. JOHN - The church of St. John is located on the elevation near the eastern entrance in Velika Hoca. It was probably built in the 14th century which is confirmed only by fragments of frescoes from that time. Architecturally unusual, the church has the shape of tetrakonhos with square narthex. Lateral apses are lower than the ones on the east and west. Naos and narthex are covered with semi-oval vault. The apses are polygonal from outside and semi-circular inside. In the 1580s, the church was repainted. The altar area has the paintings of Virgin Mary, Liturgy of Archpriests, Communion of apostles and Annunciation, while in the first zone standing saints are painted and in the narrow column above them there are down-to-the-waist representations. The cycles of Great Feasts, Passion of Christ and Akathistos Hymn are painted in higher zones of the temple. Iconographic contents of the paintings in narthex, with the interesting choice of scenes, emphasizes the message of prayers to Christ. On the eastern wall of narthex in the Deesis composition, Virgin Mary and St. John the Baptist address prayers of the human race to Christ to be a mild judge on the Last Judgment painted on the western wall. The portrait of St. John is painted in the niche above the entrance in naos, while the scenes from his life are illustrated in higher zones of narthex. Conservation works on the paintings were carried out in 1975. 
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  • 22. VELIKA HOCA, CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS - The church of St. Nicholas, at the graveyard above the village, was built and painted by 1345. In that year, nun Marta was buried in that church, mother of landowner Gradislav Susenica, which is inscribed on her tombstone. It is supposed that the temple was built by the parents of landowner Gradislav in the second quarter of the 14th century. The church is an one-nave building covered with semi-oval vault, with the apse three-sided from outside and semi-circular inside. The wall between narthex and naos was removed. Part of the original wall paintings is preserved only on the western wall which, by its style, belongs to the time of King Dusan. It is supposed that the founder of paintings was Gradislav Susenica himself. The scenes of the cycle of St. Nicholas include, inter alia, the composition of St. Sava and St. Simeon Nemanja bowing to the icon of Virgin Mary with Christ. After the renewal in the 16th century, the church was repainted. Above the zone of standing saints, there are busts in medallions and the cycles of Great Feasts, Passion of Christ and St. Nicholas, while the Akathistos Hymn, Christís miracles and parables and the Last Judgment are illustrated in narthex. Conservation works on the paintings were carried out in the 1970-1975 period. 
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  • 23. MUSUTISTE, CHURCH OF THE VIRGIN HODEGETRIA - The endowment of the main accountant John Dragoslav and his family is located above the village of Musutiste, 10 km south-east of Suva Reka. It was built in 1315 which is evidenced by a long and neat stone inscription above the western portal. The founder was one of the first Serbian landlords who was in the position to build such a big church. It was built with alternate layers of stone and brick, while the semi-circular altar apse has a more complex decoration in the combination of brick and mortar. Its foundation has the shape of the cross-in-square with the dome supported by four free columns. Only fragments of paintings are preserved, so that four archpriests painted in the altar area (including one of the oldest representations of St. Kliment of Ohrid) and several individual figures in the northern-western corner of naos (holy women, warriors Theodore Tiro and Theodore Stratelates, angels and St. Panteleimon) speak about the great skill and education of the painter. Although they have no direct parallels, the Musutiste frescoes can be placed among the most beautiful achievements of the epoch of King Milutin. Although their creation was not mentioned in the founderís inscription, it is supposed that they were painted immediately after the completion of construction and by 1320 at the latest. The church keeps two throne icons from 1603. The temple was renewed in the second half of the 19th century. No conservation works were carried out. 
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  • 24. RECANE, CHURCH OF ST. GEORGE - In the village of Recane, east of Suva Reka, there is a small church dedicated to St. George, the endowment of an unknown Serbian duke who was buried there on 23 December 1370. The tomb with the carved, partially damaged, inscription points to the period of the construction and painting of temple as the seventh decade of the 14th century. The building has unusually harmonious proportions and the foundation in the shape of the cross-in-square with the dome on pilasters. It was built with stone; only the dome is built with alternate layers of limestone and brick. Modest ceramoplastic decoration is represented primarily on the southern facade. The interesting iconographic contents of the Recane paintings includes, besides the usual subjects, the cycle dedicated to the patron of the temple numbering about ten compositions based on the Slav interpretation of the legend about St. George. The stylistic characteristics of these paintings, severely damaged by fire and the templeís partial falling in mid-19th century, point to local painters, members of a local workshop, most probably from Prizren. Inspired by the achievements from the first half of the 14th century, they show some archaic characteristics but, at the same time, certain features characteristic for the contemporary trends and for the art of that time. The first protection works were carried out already in 1926, while the complete conservation works on the architecture and paintings were carried out in the 1956-1960 period. 
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  • 25. KORISA, MONASTERY AND HERMITAGE OF ST. PETER KORISKI - The impressive ruins of the monastery and hermitage in which ascetic Peter Koriski was buried most probably at the beginning of the 13th century are located east of Prizren, near the village of Korisa. The oldest part is the partially carved natural recess in the rock with the remains of frescoes from around 1220. They are characterized by light colours completed by sure drawing as well as by characteristic iconography which reveals the cemetery character of the shrine. At the end of the 13th century or at the beginning of the 14th century, a church was built on the narrow plateau in front of the cave whose southern wall was leaning on the arcades and massive columns which are still, even today, the most impressive part of the complex. Nothing is left of the temple itself; its northern wall was a rock on which fragments of paintings are discernible, painted simultaneously with the second layer of frescoes in hermitage. Severely damaged paintings dating back to around 1350 do not allow a clearer image of their stylistic characteristics. The narrowness of space resulted in placing the refectory, monksí cells and other economic premises in a multi-storey building erected between the rocks north-west of the church. When the Prizren region was occupied by Turks, this monastic community was deserted and the relics of its founder were moved to the Crna Reka Monastery in 1572. Archeological excavations and architectural conservation works were carried out in 1961. 
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  • 26. NERODIMLJE, COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS - The toponymy dates back to the middle age and is connected with two villages of different age primarily known by a great number of church monuments. The oldest protected architectural remains in this area belong to a Byzantine palace from the time before of the Serbian conquest of this territory. An older settlement, Gornje (Upper) Nerodimlje, at the foot of Nerodimska Mount 6 km west of Urosevac, was mentioned for the first time in the Gracanica Charter of King Milutin (1311/1316) under the name of Rodimlja. It was also named as Porodimlja, the place where the Decani hrisovulja was written in 1330 in the palace of Stephen Decanski, as well as Nerodimlja where Emperor Dusan and his son Uros had their palaces. This place gained great historical importance since Serbian rulers from the Nemanjic dynasty lived in the palaces they built there, beginning with King Milutin who died in Nerodimlje. There are several churches in the village: monastery of Holy Archangels, church of the Assumption or monastery of St. Uros where, according to the folk tradition, King Uros died. Above the settlement, there are the ruins of the Veliki (Big) and Mali (Little) Petric fortifications. Donje (Lower) Nerodimlje is not far away from Gornje (Upper) Nerodimlje. It is younger that the latter judging by the first preserved mention in the Turkish census of 1455. In the village, there are also the foundations of the church of St. Stephen, ruins of the church dedicated to the Virgin Mary completely renewed in 1925 and the remains of the church of St. Nicholas Letnji on which a new building was built in 1938. 
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  • 27. NERODIMLJE, REMAINS OF A BYZANTINE PALACE - A Byzantine basilica is located on the cemetery between Gornje and Donje Nerodimlje, about 10 m north of the church of St. Nicholas. Until archeological excavations in 1988, it was thought that the remains of the palace of King Milutin lay there so that the monument is protected under that name. The excavations uncovered parts of a monumental edifice from the 6th century whose floor is decorated with mosaic and walls with paintings. In the centre of the biggest room there is a round pool in the axis of entrance and staircase leading to the corridor. Mosaic covered the entire floor, outside and inner surface of the pool and the entire staircase. Birds and floral motives are illustrated along the edge of the floor, while the greatest part of the surface has geometrical ornaments. On the western part of the floor there is an arcade with figures of seven Greek wise men whose names and thoughts by which they were known were written in Latin. The mosaic was made with multi-coloured cubes of marble and marl and the faces of wise men with glass paste. The edifice was built in the late classical period while the mosaic floor was made in the time of Iustinian. Due to its representative appearance it was also used in subsequent epochs, so that the possibility that it was a palace of Serbian rulers in the 14th century cannot be ruled out. Some walls were built in the 17th century and the site was last used in the 19th century as a cemetery. The mosaic floor was moved to the Museum of Kosovo in Pristina where preservation works were carried out. 
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  • 28. VELIKI AND MALI PETRIC FORTIFICATIONS - The remains of medieval towns of Veliki Petric and Mali Petric (Petric, Petrc, Velika and Mala Kaleja) are located near the village of Gornja Nerodimlja, west of Urosevac. Both towns were built on the tops of hardly accessible hills above the mouth of the Golema (Big) and Mala (Little) Rivers. The purpose of the fortifications was to protect the roads and the palace of Serbian rulers at Nerodimlje. Petric is mentioned in the biography of King Stephen Decanski in connection with his conflict with his son, King Stephen Dusan, which took place in 1331. It is not known in which of the two towns the old king was captured. The basis of Veliki Petric is oval; it has two towers on the western and southern ramparts and one big round tower within the fortification. Some ramparts are preserved even up to 4 m of height. Mali Petric is completely in ruins. Not many remains of the southern rampart and traces of a possible gate can be seen in the dense vegetation. Veliki and Mali Petric have not been explored and no preservation works have been carried out.  
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  • 29. NERODIMLJE, CHURCH OF THE HOLY ARCHANGELS - The monastery church of Holy Archangels from the 14th century was renewed in 1700. This is an one-nave building with narthex which was painted and repainted. On the western facade, there are two large rectangular windows. Under the younger layer of frescoes from the beginning of the 18th century and the painted surfaces there are still uncovered paintings from the 14th and 15th centuries. There are several icons from the 17th and 18th centuries in the church. There used to be a black pine tree above the church which, according to the folk tradition, had been planted by Emperor Dusan and which lasted until 1975. 
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  • 30. NERODIMLJE, CHURCH OF THE ASSUMPTION (MONASTERY OF ST. UROS - The church is located on the slopes of the Neredice hill, west of the village of Gornja Nerodimlja, near the village of Sajkovac (formerly Sarenik). Most probably, the church was built at the end of the 14th century and, according to the folk tradition, it was built by Empress Jelena, mother of Emperor Uros, above her sonís grave after his death in 1371. The monastic life died in 1584 and Patriarch Pajsije mentioned in the hagiography of Emperor Uros the making of a new kivot (sarcophagus for saintsí relics) and the renewal of his church. In the 17th century it was mentioned as the church of St. Uros. To protect the relics from the Turks, a monk named Hristifor moved them in 1705 to the monastery of Jazak on Fruska Gora where they lay until 1945 when they were moved to the Cathedral Church in Belgrade. The church was destroyed in the first half of the 19th century and Gilferding described it as a ruin in 1858. The renewal of the church began at the end of the 19th century but, because of the Turkish and Albanian obstruction, it was renewed up to the vaults. 
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  • RECOGNIZED CULTURAL MONUMENTS 
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  • MUNICIPALITY OF ORAHOVAC 
  • 1. Bela Crkva - Zrze - archeological site Pozig, 2nd-4th century, 6th century, 12th century 
  • 2. Brnjaca - church of St. Cyriace, 14th vek 
  • 3. Velika Hoca - the house of the Spasic family, 19th century; residential tower of Lazar Kujudzic, 19th century; metochion of the Decani Monastery (monastic residential building erected in 1851) 
  • 4. Gedje - Gradis hill, south of the village, near Svanjski most - archeological site from the early Iron Age and early Midddle Ages, 8th century B.C. and 9th-10th century A.D. 
  • 5. Zociste - church of the Holy Anargyroi, 14th-16th century 
  • 6. Opterusa - church of St. George, 16th-17th century 
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  • MUNICIPALITY OF SUVA REKA 
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  • 1. Kostrce, Gradiste - fortified town, 14th century 
  • 2. Lesane - old Orthodox cemetery; Jasar Pasha's residential tower, 19th century 
  • 3. Musutiste - necropolis from the early Middle Ages; locality Siroko - Illyrian ruins, 10th-8th century B.C; Matos hermitages, 13th-14th century; Rusinica hermitage, 13th century; Holy Trinity Monastery, 14th-19th century 
  • 4. Pecane - church of the Presentation of the Virgin, 1451/2. 
  • 5. Popovljane - church of St. Nicholas, 1626. 
  • 6. Suva Reka - church of the Virgin, 14th century; Holy Trinity Monastery, 14th-19th century; church erected in 1938. 
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  • MUNICIPALITY OF UROSEVAC 
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  • 1. Gornja Nerodimlja - remains of the medieval town of Svrcin with the foundations of the small church of St. John, 14th century 
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  • MUNICIPALITY OF PRIZREN 
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  • 1. Visegrad - fortress, 14th century; "Dusan's bridge" in the gorge of Prizrenska Bistrica, 14th-15th century 
  • 2. Jablanica - hydroelectric power station "Prizrenka" 1926-28.  
  • 3. Kabas, Cukalj hill - remains of the medieval tower, 12th-13th century; remains of the church in Luka-mahala, 14th century; cemetery church near the school, 14th century  
  • 4. Korisa, Gradiste hill - remains of the fortified site, 2nd-6th century; Sukalje - remains of the tower, 13th century; Gradiste - remains of the fortified town, 13th century; remains of the church of St. Nicholas, 14th century; remains of the church of Sts. Peter and Paul, 14th century; remains of the church of Sveta Precista (Holy Virgin), so-called "Church of the sister of St. Peter Koriski", 14th century; old Orthodox cemetery; church of St. George, 14th century; St. Mark Monastery, 14th century; church of "The Most Holy Virgin", near Vrelo, 17th century 
  • 5. Landovica - monument of the War of National Liberation (Second World War) 
  • 6. Lokvica - church of the Prophet Elijah, 19th century 
  • 7. Ljubizda - church of St. Nicholas, 16th century; remains of the church of St. Cyriace, 16th-17th century 
  • 8. Nasec - site of a former church, 14th century 
  • 9. Novake - old house, 19th century 
  • 10. Planjane - church of the Virgin, 19th century 
  • 11. Prizren - hermitage of St. Nicholas, 14th century; Prince Mark's church of the Presentation of the Virgin, 14th century; stone bridge, 14th-15th century; church of St. Nicholas (Rajkov), 14th-19th century; icon of the Virgin Pelagonitissa, in the Cathedral, 14th century; Clock tower, 15th and 16th century; Kirik Mosque "Namazdzali", 1455; church of St. George (Runovic), 16th century; Mehmed-pasha's Turkish bath, 16th century; Mehmed-pasha's library, 16th-19th century; Mehmed-pasha's Mosque, 16th century; Suzi Celebi's tombstone, 16th century; old Turkish vakufname (endowment charters) in Vakufski odbor (Muslim Endowment Council), 18th-19th century; Tekija (dervish's building) Halveti, 19th century; Kadri Tekija (dervish's building), 19th century; Clock tower, 19th century; Seh-zade's house, 19th century; complex of Maras-mahala (Maras-quarter), 19th century; Emin pasha's tombstone, 19th century; collection of the Pacarizi family's old books, 19th century; complex of The League of Prizren, 19th century; old city center on the right bank of Bistrica, 19th-20th century; complex of "Potkaljaja", "Pantelija" and "Potok Mahala" (city quarters), 19th century; Tabahana (tanning workshop), 19th century; building of the Ruzdija secondary school in 82 Lenjina st.; Sedrvan (water fountain), Papaz-carsija and Terzi-mahala (city quarters); fountain next to the Sinan-pasha's Mosque; Binbasi stone fountain; fountain "Studenac Kosovo"; old Orthodox cemetery; Tas fountain in the courtyard of the Clock tower, 20th century; Destan Kabasi fountain in 5 Save Kovacevica st., 20th century; stone fountain Beledija on the 17. novembra Square, 20th century; complex of the gymnasium "Jovanka Radivojevic - Kica", 20th century; cemetery of the Serbian soldiers from the First World War, 20th century; Petar Kostic Monument, 20th century; Sima Igumanov Monument, 20th century; building of The Orthodox Seminary, 20th century; building of the Elementary school "Mladen Ugarevic", 20th century 
  • 12. Romaja - Dardanian necropolis - tumuluses, 8th-V century B.C. 
  • 13. Sredska - church of St. Nicholas, 19th century 
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  • MUNICIPALITY OF STRPCE 
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  • 1. Gotovusa - church of the Virgin, 16th-19th century  
  • 2. Brezovica, Gradiste - Cajlije - remains of the fortress, 13th century 
  • 3. Sevce - church of St. Nicholas, 1861; church of St. Athanasios, 1921. 
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  • III DISTRICT OF PRISTINA  
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  • GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:  
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  • * Municipalities of Pristina, Kosovo Polje, Lipljan, Gnjilane, Novo Brdo, Kosovska Kamenica 
  • * Kosovo and Metohija  
  • * Southern Serbia 
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  • DESCRIPTION 
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  • The region of Kosovo between the upper stretches of the Sitnica, Binacka Morava and Kriva Reka rivers, was an active province of the Roman Empire which got its episcopal seat (Ulpiana) in the 4th century. Numerous archaeological localities show that this area was densely populated during Antiquity while at the time of the expansion of the Serbian state in the 14th century, it became the venue of important historic events which were to shape the destiny of not only the Serbian people but of the entire Balkan peninsula as well. It was here that one of the most beautiful examples of late Byzantine architecture was created, namely the magnificent church of the Gracanica monastery with its murals constituting the last works of the master fresco painters of the Renaissance during the rule of the Palaeologus dynasty, Michael and Evtichius. At the same time, many noblemen erected votive churches in the territory of Kosovo (Kmetovce, Vaganes, Ajnovce, Lipljan) and the largest mining centre in Serbia of that time and a mint (Novo Brdo) were established. They attest to the cultural and economic power of the Serbian medieval state during the century which was to see its highest ascent but also its greatest defeat at the hands of the Turks in 1389 (Gazimestan). After the last barrier was dismantled, the Ottoman Empire came to threaten even Vienna, while artistic pursuit in the region of Kosovo, which had for over a thousand years been a lively juncture of trade routes and cultures practically died down until a century ago when the urban centre of Pristina started developing and new centres started cropping up. However, their artistic reaches fell short of the medieval masters who erected upon the foundations of earlier cultures the most impressive monuments of medieval architecture and fresco painting. 
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  • COMPARISON WITH OTHER SIMILAR PROPERTIES: 
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  • The region of Kosovo is a juncture at which intersect and cross-fertilise the main artistic and historic paths in the Serbian medieval state. It mirrors the major aspects of the material and spiritual life blossoming in the Orthodox East prior to its decline and fall under Ottoman rule. Based on traditions of Antiquity which embedded its roots deep in the soil of Kosovo, it is here that one of the most representative examples of late Byzantine art was created, the Church of Gracanica Monastery (on the preliminary World Heritage List). 
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  • 1. ULPIANA - The remains of the Roman and early Byzantine Ulpiana occupy the area of 35 ha and are located on the Gradina site near the present-day Gracanica. The cultural layer of 4 m was discovered on this multi-layer site. The ramparts of the Roman town had irregular quadrangle foundation. Necropoles were located on the north and west of the town, while the fortress with square foundation was on the northern-eastern side. The birth of the town is connected with Trajanís rule (98-118). The original small mining settlement became a town with the status of Roman municipality. Ulpiana became the bishopric centre early ; the synod at Serdica in 343 was also attended by its Bishop Makedonijus. After the renewal of the town undertaken by Iustinian in mid-6th century the town was called Iustiniana Secunda. The town was completely destroyed in the attacks by the Avars and Slavs at the end of the 6th century and the beginning of the 7th century. The sondage archeological excavations begun in 1953 (followed by conservation works) discovered the following parts of the classical Ulpiana: one-nave basilica with a crypt in the northern-western part of the settlement; the remains of two spas; parts of the mosaic floor of a building; part of stylobate of a classical temple; town gate with towers and the beginning of the main street (cardo). In the northern necropolis, built tombs, memory with a big marble sarcophagus and the remains of mosaic floor with donorís inscription were discovered. 
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  • 2. GRACANICA MONASTERY - The church of the Assumption in the Gracanica Monastery, the endowment of King Milutin, was built in the second decade of the 14th century. It has the shape of five-dome building with the foundation in the shape of the developed cross-in-square and, thus, belongs to the group of the first-class architectural achievements of the epoch. The outside narthex was built in mid-16th century. Mihailo and Evtihije, famous painters from Salonica, completed the paintings by 1321. Divine Liturgy, prophets and evangelists are painted in the central dome below the painting of Christ Pantoctrator. The cycles of Great Feasts, Passion of Christ, Miracles, Parable, Christís Comings after Ressurection, scenes from Virginís life, St. Nicholas and Menologion are painted in naos. Eucharist and Old Testament subjects are represented on the altar. Milutin and his wife Simonida, Byzantine princess, are painted as rulers by the Godís will since the angels bring them crowns from the heaven. The Nemanjicsí genealogical tree and the Last Judgment are painted in narthex, while the fragments of frescoes painted in the 14th century and around 1570 are preserved in the outside narthex. In addition to the compositions of the cycles of Ecumenical Synods, Akathistos Hymn and Baptism, there are also the portraits of Serbian archbishops and patriarchs and the painting of the funeral of the Gracanica Metropolit Dionisije. The Gracanica treasury was destroyed in the fires between 1379 and 1383. Today, the monastery keeps a significant collection of icons, the oldest one being the icon of Christ the Merciful from the 14th century, unique by its dimensions (269 cm x 139 cm). Continuous conservation works on the architecture and paintings are carried out.  
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  • 3. KMETOVCE MONASTERY - In the vicinity of Gnjilane, 1 km south-east of the village of Kmetovce, there are the remains of the church of the old monastery of St. Demetrios, today more known as dedicated to St. Barbara. Written sources do not mention this cult place, while the folk (oral) tradition links the birth of the monastery with the time of Emperor Dusan. The preserved remains of church indicate the transitional type of building between the developed and shortened cross-in-square which points to the similarity with the shrine of St. Nicholas in the Holy Archangelsí Monastery near Prizren. One-nave vaulted building with the dome over the central bay was leaning on the wall between narthex and naos on the western side, while on the eastern side it was supported by two columns. As to the altar space, the apse, three-sided from outside, and the niche which marked prothesis are preserved. The church was built with stone with the modest use of brick. The remains of fresco decorations - fragments of ornaments and the busts of saints on red background - are visible in the northern-eastern corner of the shrine. Stylistic characteristics, both artistic and architectural, lead to the conclusion that it was the endowment of a landlord, most probably from the sixth decade of the 14th century. The church was partially ruined after the Kosovo Battle and completely demolished in the 18th century. Conservation works were carried out between 1966 and 1968. 
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  • 4. VAGANES, CHURCH OF THE HOLY VIRGIN - The church is located 15 km east of Novo Brdo. It was built and painted in 1354/1355 and its founder was Serbian landowner Dabiziv with his brothers and parents. Even three inscriptions are preserved (two carved in stone and one in fresco technique) which provide basic information about this endowment of modest dimensions. Naos is one-nave, vaulted, with semi-circular altar apse and niches marking prothesis and diakonikon. A high narthex was built next to the western wall for which it is supposed that ended as a tower or a belfry. The church was in ruins for a long time, so that the paintings are severely damaged. In naos, only the fragments of the Liturgy of Archpriests, several standing figures and the composition from the cycle of Passion of Christ are preserved. Standing figures are recognizable on the southern wall of narthex, busts of martyrs are painted in the medallions in the second zone and above them there is the scene of St. George saving the Emperorís daughter and most probably the portraits of founders. The compositions from the cycle of Virginís life are presented in the highest zone of wall paintings. Certain interventions were carried out on frescoes in the 16th century, while the Virginís temple in Vaganes was almost completely razed to the ground in mid-19th century. Conservation works, carried out in 1963, restored its original appearance only partially. 
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  • 5. LIPLJAN, CHURCH OF THE PRESENTATION OF THE VIRGIN - The church of The Presentation of the Virgin was probably built in the second or third decade of the 14th century. It is an one-nave edifice covered with semi-oval dome, with the apse three-sided from outside and semi-circular inside. It is built in alternation of stone and brick and the facades are decorated with shallow sculpted ornaments and blind arcades. The built iconostasis was subsequently erected at the time of the renewal of church in the 16th century. Another partition dividing the interior of the church to the altar area, naos and narthex was also built then in the western part of the temple, while the ruined upper parts of the church were restored. The original paintings, partially preserved, were also damaged in a fire. The founder of paintings, an unknown landowner, is painted on the northern wall of naos. The paintings of high artistic value date back to mid-14th century. After the restoration of church in the 16th century, new frescoes were painted in the church and this process lasted, with interruptions, until 1621. The compositions with Eucharist symbols in the altar were renewed, individual saintsí figures and compositions from the cycles of Great Feasts and Christís miracles were painted in higher zones of iconostasis and naos, while the Last Judgment, individual saints and the healing of the sight of Stephen Decanski were illustrated in narthex. Conservation works on architecture and wall paintings were carried out in the 1955-1958 period. 
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  • 6. UBOZAC (RDJAVAC) MONASTERY - Do the impressive remains of the triconch monastery church and the complex around it herald the birth of the Morava style and date back to mid-14th century or are they one of representative examples of architecture in the period of Turkish rule in the Balkans* The literature of a recent date is trying to solve this problem using the arguments of similar weight, but the problem has not been solved yet. On the basis of historical sources the only thing known for sure is that Patriarch Pajsije, born in the vicinity, returned, intended to give and endowed manuscript books to this monastery in mid-17th century. The remains of the monastery are surrounded by the pleasant landscape beside the village of Mocare, north-east of Kosovska Kamenica. Partially explored, the complex consists of the monumental church dedicated to The Presentation of the Virgin, refectory with cellar west of it, two several-storeyed angled towers and buildings with porches which probably served as monksí cells and which stretch to the north and south along the churchyard. The covering of walls with the neatly cut stones, decorative use of brick (like cells with the use of stone on dormitories of the monks or in the shape of fishbone on the western facade of the church) and the interwoven stone relief ornament are the characteristics of this architecture. The church itself, without narthex and with narrow west bay and regular conches, had originally the dome leaning on free columns. Partial excavation and conservation works took place in the 1963-1966 period. 
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  • 7. NOVO BRDO FORTRESS - The medieval town of Novo Brdo is located on the top of Mala Planina (Small Mountain), between Prilepnica and Kriva Reka, north of Gnjilane. The fortified town and settlement date back to the beginning of the 14th century. From mid-14th century, Novo Brdo became the biggest mining place in Serbia and the most important urban centre. Silver exploited in the Novo Brdo mines had the ingredients of gold. Besides the Serbian population, people from Dubrovnik, Saxons, Greeks and Albanians also lived in the town. At the time of Emperor Stephen Dusan, there was a mint in the town and the coins with the name of the town started to be minted in 1349. The Turks conquered the town in mid-1455 and its sudden decay began. It was completely deserted at the beginning of the 17th century. The fortress is composed of the dominant Upper Town of polygonal shape with six massive rectangular towers. It was built with trimmed broken stone in almost regular layers. The rampart of the Lower Town with two towers is stretching towards west following the configuration of the terrain. The urban settlement with the main town church of St. Nicholas was within the Lower Town and on a wider space east of the fortress. 900 graves and tombs, built or carved in the rock, were discovered in the church and its yard. The remains of a church built by Saxons and the people from Dubrovnik, named Saska (Saxon) Church, were discovered south of the town. Archeological excavations and parallel conservation works in the complex of the fortified town, settlement and the church at Novo Brdo were carried out in the 1952-1959 period, in 1962 and 1969. 
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  • 8. PRISTINA, GAZIMESTAN - MEMORIAL COMPLEX - The historical area of the Kosovo Battle which took place in 1389, i.e. the central place of clash between the Serbian and Turkish armies, is a unique whole consisting of the monument to the Kosovo heroes in the shape of medieval tower built in 1953 and designed by Aleksandar Deroko, Muratís turbeh and Gazimestan turbeh (Barjaktarís (flag bearer) turbeh). The area of the Gazimestan, Plandiste, Tresevina and Lazarevo memorial complex is bordering, on the north, with the Baksija area; on the north-east with the Brnjica river, on the east with the town of Donja Brnjica and the Ravniste area; on the south with the Orlovic area and town; and on the west with the Siroko Polje and Mazgit areas with the town of Gornji Mazgit. The road to Pristina on the western side is partially bordering with and partially passing through the area. The central place is the tower, 25 m high, whose interior is inscribed by the verses of the Kosovo Cycle. There is a platform on the top of the tower overlooking the area of the Kosovo Battle. On the occasion of the celebration of the sixth century from the Kosovo Battle, art applications in cast bronze symbolizing the jubilee years were made around the tower. A white monolith marble column with the text by Despot Stephen Lazarevic was erected in the vicinity of the monument. 
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  • 9. PRISTINA, IMPERIAL MOSQUE - The mosque of Sultan Mehmed Fatih or the Imperial Mosque is located in the town centre. The inscription above the portal says that it was built in 865 according to the Hegira Islamic system of measuring time, i.e. in 1460/1461, eight years after the fall of Constantinople, i.e. the year when the typology elements were taken from Aya Sofia which determined the most frequent (Osmanli-Brus) type of the mosque building on our soil - one-storey edifice with a dome. By its sharp and peaceful proportions, with little decoration both outside and inside, with the dome with diameter of 13.5 m, slender minaret, porch with three refracted arches and three cupolas - it has all the values of monumental objects created in the early period of the Islamic architecture in Serbia. It is built with stone blocks. The simplicity of plastic works was fully expressed in the shaping of the portal and windows and in the decoration of mihrab, mahvil and other elements in its interior. 
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  • RECOGNIZED CULTURAL MONUMENTS 
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  • MUNICIPALITY OF PRISTINA  
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  • 1. Badovac - remains of the Vojsilovica Monastery, 14th century; Novo Selo - remains of the cemetery church, 16th century 
  • 2. Veletin - old town, 14th century 
  • 3. Gornja Brnjica - old cemetery with the church, 19th-20th century 
  • 4. Gracanica, section Basce, locality Gladnice - settlements from the neolithic, aeneolithic and Iron Age, 6th-3rd milenijum B.C; late classical settlement, 3rd-4th century; Slavic necropolis, 6th-8th century; Monument to the Old Serbian Warriors 1914/1918.  
  • 5. Donja Brnjica - archeological site "Polje Urni", necropoles from the Bronze Age, 15th-9th century B.C. 
  • 6. Donje Maticane - Slavic necropolis, 10th-11th century 
  • 7. Laplje Selo - Caca's water mill, 19th century; church of St. Paraskeve, between two World Wars 
  • 8. Mazgit - Murat's turbeh, 14th-20th century; Milos Obilic Commemorative Monument, 20th century 
  • 9. Pomazatin - church of the Prophet Elijah, 1937. 
  • 10. Pristina - neolithic settlement "Predionica"; Carsi-Mosque, 15th century; Pirinaz Mosque, 16th century; old Turkish bath, 16th century; library of the Islamic religious community, 17th-20th century; Mitropolija (Archbishop's residence) and the building of The First Serbian School, 2 Valjevska st., 19th century; church of St. Nicholas, 19th century; old Jewish cemetery, 19th century; city fountain, 19th century; complex of the "Divizija" building with the park and the fountain, 19th century; old city center, 19th-20th century; Clock tower, 19th-20th century; Sedrvan (fountain) in Miladina Popovica st., 19th century; Jasar-Pasha's Mosque, 19th century; Emindziku complex, 30 Alekse Santica st., 20th century; old Officers' Center, 2 Hajduk Veljkova st., 20th century; City Library, 8 Kralja Milutina st., 20th century; Boxing Club building, 2-6 Marka Isaka st., 20th century; Municipal House, 14-16 Marka Isaka st., 20th century; Tuberculosis Clinic, 18 Beogradska st., 20th century; building of the Post-Office, 2 Zanatska st., 20th century; Lumber Camp building, 6 Zanatska st., 20th century; Municipal Archive, 25 Zanatska st., 20th century; Social Security building, 1 Kralja Milutina st., 20th century; building of the Omladina cinema, 1 Njegoseva st., 20th century; building of the Provincial District, 2 Vidovdanska st., 20th century; "Union" building, 13 Vidovdanska st., 20th century; National Theater, 15 Vidovdanska st., 20th century; Hotel "Bozur", 29 Vidovdanska st., 20th century; Geodesy Office building, 3 G. Principa st., 20th century; Parliament building of the city of Pristina, 2 Kralja Milutina st., 20th century; Commemorative church - mausoleum, Dusana Bulaica st., 20th century 
  • 11. Sofalija - settlements from the aeneolithic period and Iron Age, middle of the 3rd millennium B.C. and 8th-3rd century B.C; late classical settlements, 3rd-4th century A.D.